The Church Historian's Press

January 1901


4 March

EBW and Susa Young Gates attended the second inauguration of U.S. president William McKinley in Washington, DC, as guests of Utah senator Thomas Kearns.

12–16 July

May Wright Sewall, president of the International Council of Women, visited Salt Lake City and spoke in the Tabernacle as well as at parlor meetings, lawn parties, and a gala at Saltair.

28 August

Zina D. H. Young, third Relief Society general president, died at her home a few days after returning from Cardston, Alberta, Canada. EBW spoke at her funeral on Sunday, 1 September.

2 November

EBW was elected a director of the Utah Federation of Women’s Clubs.

4 November

EBW and friends celebrated the tenth anniversary of the organization of the Utah Woman’s Press Club.

10 November

At a special conference in the Tabernacle, Bathsheba W. Smith was sustained as fourth Relief Society general president. EBW was named general secretary.

1 January 1901 • Tuesday

<[A.] Owen & Helen [Winters] Woodruff had a little girl1 born this morning> John Q. [Cannon] lit the Xmas tree before daylight and I went down as soon as I could get on a wrapper. I was not well could not eat any breakfast feet swollen‒ Q.2 Louise [B. Cannon] Margaret [Cannon] & myself drove to the Tabernacle, John Q. had gone on before us. The services were very fine‒ music superb‒ Went afterwards to see my sister3 at the Cannon House, found her quite seriously ill. Went to Annie [Elizabeth Ann Wells Cannon]’s to dinner– and came home late‒ Margaret came with me to stay all night. I did not feel able even to read tho’ I did finish Tommy & Grisel felt it was a disappointment. It was a very cold night, thermometer below zero. I had no presents at all gave the girls handkerchiefs twins4 shirts Katherine [Cannon] stockings, Cavendish [W. Cannon] booklet. Eugene [S. Sears] & Brent [E. Brenton Sears] booklets‒ felt more ill than I can remember feeling any New Year’s day before. Annie has a bad cold Mr. [Septimus Wagstaff] Sears is ill Lucile [Sears] not well. {p. 37}5

2 January 1901 • Wednesday

Today I finished mailing and did some writing and proof reading, though I was really not fit to work at all. Had a number of callers. Sister Jane S. [Snyder] Richards from Ogden and several Salt Lake folks. Letter from Sister [Rebecca Atwood] Wareham of Manti quite consoling. One from Dr. E. R. [Ellis Reynolds] Shipp asking about going to Mexico. Annie came up little David [W. Cannon] had been sick. I went to see my sister at evening took her the iron for her to take. I bought some smart-weed for myself. Called on Dr. [Romania Bunnell] Pratt a few minutes, her mother6 is better. I came home full of ideas and expecting to write but the wind blew so furiously I could not compose myself sufficiently to do it‒ commenced to read Alice of Old Vincennes by Maurice Thompson. I looked through the magazines. Stayed up until one in the morning, and felt too weary to do anything but think and that was an exertion {p. 38}

3 January 1901 • Thursday

My feet were so swollen this morning I could not get my shoes on at all, had to go up in slippers had lots of callers today‒ read proof and wrote to Mrs. Annie J. Wood, Quincy Illinois and sent her five dollars for work on minutes for National Council. Annie & George Q. came up to see me. I was suffering a great deal of pain. Received an invitation to the Inaugural Ball January 7. Gen. John Q. Cannon has charge of the ceremonial‒ it is to be very simple and unostentious Salute is to be fired north of the building by the Artillery of the National Guard. Although in so much pain, I began my editorial on the New Year & New Century and, tried to be composed, but the wind blew furiously and I could not go to bed and I left off writing and put my things ready to go to Belle [Isabel Whitney Sears]’s {p. 39}

4 January 1901 • Friday

I slept scarc[e] at all last night tried in vain to be composed. It is twenty years since Q. was born in my old home. I could not go up, had to send Olive [Hicks] with copy, and later on I went, a most disagreeable day. Q. rode on horseback up into the caňon for some lost cows. I had a number of callers & of letters. Went out and bought a chiffonier for Q. and a picture for Miss [Belle] Evans the typo called the Minuet‒ went down to Annie’s to dinner had roast chicken and corn potatoes jelly etc. finally bananna cake and whipped cream. John Q. was late we had dinner over-spent the evening with them and stayed all night, had quite a visit only David was sick and worried us a great deal. Belle has had 22 chickens die, without apparent cause, slept with Louise & Katharine‒ had a miserable night. {p. 40}

5 January 1901 • Saturday

<Sister Annie L. [Lewis] Johnson left to day for Philadelphia‒> This morning rose late, David seemed very sick and it worried us very much; children went off to the Farm to practise for their grandfather’s7 birthday and finally I started off for the office‒ read proofs then went for Dr. Pratt to see baby.8 Several callers, Louise Emmeline [Cannon] and Q. all came up for things for Sunday, told me baby was very bad. Annie [Taylor] Hyde & Beatrice [Corlie Hyde] called and Sister [Mary E.] Gardner and Wilcox,9 and several more. I felt very wretched. Wrote to Sister E. E. [Elvira Cox] Day of Fairview and Louisa B. [Ballif] Benson of Whitney, mailed reply to Oregon Short Line, wrote to Heber J. Grant, also to Sister E. E. [Eunice Harmon] Dunn of Eastdale Colorado and <tried> to do some looking up. Came home Emmeline here went over to Belle’s. Marion [Buchholz] has croup, and Belle is over there Wrote 7 letters since coming home five during the day 12. in all besides other work {p. 41}

6 January 1901 • Sunday

Went to the Temple Fast Meeting and was surprised at the small attendance though President Jos. F. Smith was there and six of the Apostles. John W. Taylor Heber J. Grant, Anthon H. Lund, Mathias A. Cowley, <Abraham> Owen Woodruff and Rudger Clawson. President of the Temple Bishop John R. Winder and Adolph [Adolphus C.] Madsen also President Angus M. Cannon of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion. Meeting opened by singing “Come let us anew” Prayer by Prest. A. M. Cannon, Singing “Glorious things are sung of Zion” Prest. Winder made opening remarks and alluded to the New Year & New Century. then the Apostles spoke in the order in which I have named them. followed by President Jos. F. Smith in a powerful speech and mighty testimony, Sister B. W. [Bathsheba Wilcox Bigler] Smith said a few words concerning the Prophet Joseph Smith. sung “The morning breaks” benediction Br. Madsen {p. 42}

7 January 1901 • Monday

This morning was extremely stormy‒ wind furious and thunder and lightning at last, then hail and finally snow. I started off in the midst of it to see the inauguration ceremonies, and hear the Governor’s10 address. The Hall of Representatives was the place decided upon and a platform was ready‒ where the new State officers were all arranged ready for the oath to be administered by Judge [James A.] Miner Then Bishop [Lawrence] Scanlon of the Roman Catholic Church offered prayer‒ the Governor read his address which was excellent then he took the oath of office‒ and a salute of 17 guns was fired and the band played America‒ rode up with Mrs. [Emma Kelley] McVicker snow deep, went to Sister [Elizabeth DuFresne] Stevenson’s house dedication Prayer by Patriarch John Smith present, Br. & Sister J. Smith A. M. Cannon & Amanda [Mousley Cannon], Mr. [Robert T.] Burton {p. 43} Lucy [Rice] Clark Ruth M. [May] Fox. The ball at the theatre came next‒ A brilliant affair, the most so of any‒ Gov. Wells led the grand march with his Sister Edna [Wells] Sloan I went with Annie & Gen. Cannon & Q. and Louise‒ came home in a carriage at 2. A.M.

8 January 1901 • Tuesday

Jan. 8. Had to attend a meeting at Mrs. [Priscilla Jennings] Riter’s about 17 or 18 ladies were present had lunch there, and rode back to the office about 3. p.m. came home late and too weary to write at all‒ could not even read‒ I have no strength to do my work though today I have written several letters tonight, and have had several callers. Junius [F. Wells] made me quite a visit, I had a talk with him about Senators to Congress, he does not like to see George M. Cannon go to the U.S. Senate‒ Susa [Young Gates] came and talked of the articles for the paper {p. 44}

9 January 1901 • Wednesday

This morning revise came and I took to reading it immediately Louise came and said her father had a very hard chill. Worked incessantly, Mrs. H. [Harvey] H. Cluff [Sarah Eggertsen Cluff] called on me also Ella W. [Ellen Wilcox] Hyde, Margaret A. [Mitchell] Caine and other ladies Parinthia Snow brought me an Article concerning her mother.11 Have written six letters, Aggie [Agnes Stewart] Campbell & Josephine Spencer were two more callers. Had lunch with [J.] Golden Kimball, also went in to see Jode [Joseph S. Wells] and he spoke plainly to me of the jealousy about Hebe [Heber M. Wells]. Wrote to Louisa B. Benson, Whitney Idaho

Lydia [Pond] Rich Morgan Utah

Lucy S. [Smith] Cardon Logan [Utah]12

Sarah [LeDuc] Pope Vernal Utah

Matilda [Andresen] Olsen Mayfield [Utah]13

Eliza R. [Metcalf] Bartholomew Fayette [Utah]

Had a long visit from Bishop [Orson Ferguson] Whitney and some serious talk on important matters, confidential in their nature {p. 45}

10 January 1901 • Thursday

Went over to see Belle, Lucile is sick‒ Jote [Josephine] Spencer, Emily Katz Annie T. Hyde Dr. Pratt Mrs [Anna Hicks] Piepgrass & baby14 Louie Hicks [blank] Hicks Mrs. Nellie [Mary Ellen Richards] Webber Mrs. E. J. Stevenson‒ letter from Hiram [E. W. Clark] and Mell [Melvina Whitney Woods] both good news. Miss Evans came in the evening. Hade a talk with Mary Jane Whitney Groo about her mother’s15 sisters and Grace Groo and things of importance concerning Temple work‒ [Theodore] Roosevelt has come on to Colorado to shoot mountain lions. President [William] McKinley is sick stated to be lagrippe, but he is in bed. Was in so much pain that I sent over for Dr. Pratt to talk with her about my condition‒ she came and seemed perfectly unconcerned In the evening I still felt very ill and strange, thought seriously of sending over for Belle in the night. {p. 46}

11 January 1901 • Friday

It was hard for me to go to the office as it has been much of the time since I had this cold to battle with. There are many things to think of when one feels unsettled not knowing the next turn the current of life will take. I worked hard all day and at evening, Mrs. [blank] brought word about Camilla [Mieth]’s Cobbs illness, which gave me some anxiety. It seems there is much sickness of many kinds in the City. Very many with La Grippe and bad colds. This is President Geo. Q. Cannon’s birthday 74 years old. he is away possibly on the ocean as he expected to sail from Honolulu on the 7th of this month. {p. 47}

12 January 1901 • Saturday

Mrs. Seigel [Rachel Ulman Siegel] had invited a few ladies to have lunchion‒ on the night of the ball‒ it was to be at half-past one‒ Mrs. Minnie J. [Sarah Ephramina Jensen] Snow had invited me to ride up with her and I had accepted. We went up together and she talked over the reception to be given at the Bee Hive the next Wednesday. Mrs. Seigel’s luncheon was a fine affair‒ tables beautiful & every delicacy one could wish; ladies present were Mrs. E. B. Wells & Mrs. M. J. Snow Mrs. [Hannah Keogh] McCornick and Mrs. Annie W. Cannon Mrs. [Minnie Pegram] Fabian & Mrs. Bertha [Greenewald Bamberger] and Ida [Maas] Bamberger and Mrs. Coleman– besides Mrs. Seigel herself the hostess‒ I drove home with Mrs. Snow‒ and had enjoyed the company very much indeed. {p. 48}

13 January 1901 • Sunday

I felt so determined to rest that I stayed at home all day tho’ I greatly desired to go to the Tabernacle‒ I did very little even of reading, yet I was not well and my day did not help me as I wished I put away some of my papers and looked thro’ my drawers. Went over to see Belle and the children, I was sorry afterwards that I had not gone at least to one meeting, for it would have been a change and as it was I did not feel equal to writing anything that necessitated thought and altogether I was dissatisfied with the day. {p. 49}

14 January 1901 • Monday

The State Legislature opened its session today, Bishop O. F. Whitney Dem. is in the Senate‒ hold over from last year. [Abel John] Evans of Lehi was made President of the Senate‒ and [William] Glassman <of Ogden> of the House. Much of the talk everywhere is in regard to the electing of a Senator‒ there are many candidates‒ foremost among those who are pushing for place are Arthur Brown & [William S.] McCornick‒ also [Thomas F.] Kearns, A. [Arthur] L. Thomas, O. [Orange] J. Salisbury Thom [Thomas] Fitch and George M. Cannon. What the outcome will be no man knoweth. This morning I fainted had to send for Dr. Pratt, was lying down all the afternoon and felt very ill. Sister Richards of Ogden came also Sister S. J. [Sarah Jenne] Cannon and several others. I really feel unable to do my work and yet I cannot give up. I get very little sleep. {p. 50}

15 January 1901 • Tuesday

To day the great cattle & stock men are expected to arrive and a reception is tendered them at the Knutsford. I tried all day to get through my work, and get home in time to dress for the reception but after all was nearly too late, went alone wore my brown silk and white lace scarf. A perfect jam‒ the decorations were superb beauty roses in profusion also carnations and so on. The parlors were a mass of beauty; there were many handsome costumes but could scarcely be seen‒ policemen had to clear the way for standing room for the Governor and his staff to receive‒ Annie was in line‒ John Q. in uniform of course. Mrs. [Susannah Bransford] Holmes the Silver King woman was the one paid for the decorations {p. 51}

16 January 1901 • Wednesday

This is the day of the receptions at the three places decided upon the Bee Hive, Mayor [Ezra] Thompson’s and McCornick’s, I went up early badly as I felt after having sat up nearly all night to prepare my paper, for the Lecture at the Latter day Saints College‒ it was to be given to the young ladies only. I called it The Mother and The Home Women Past & Present‒ I was in time and succeeded better than would seem possible after my struggles in attempting to do it, while so ill. Was at Sister Snow’s in time 2. p.m. stood in line next to Sister Snow then Sister [Priscilla Paul] Jennings, then Ria [C. Maria Young] Dougall, & Mrs. Seigel then LeRoy Snow’s wife‒16 About three hundred guests there was fine music & singing by Professionals, also whistling and fruit punch– house beautifully decorated.17 {p. 52}

17 January 1901 • Thursday

Today the meetings at the Assembly hall are going on this is Mary Jane Whitney Groo’s birthday, she is fifty seven today. I think she is very exclusive in regard to her relatives, she never invites them at all and yet she could afford to do a great deal if she would and help keep up family sociability which is always pleasant and commendable. There is a great deal taking place during this first month of the New Year & New Century There is much sickness and of a sad nature, Br. Cannon is home from the Islands and feeling quite a deal better has gained in flesh and no doubt added some years to his life and some vitality to his spirits and nerves. {p. 53}

18 January 1901 • Friday

To-day is the Lake party to be given in honor of the visitors by the Ladies Committee of whom Mrs. Bella [Sybella Johnson] Clayton is Chairman‒ went up there to see what we were to do and stayed to lunch‒ we were on time for the train Mrs. Sal Seigel18 introduced me to Mrs. [Alice] Dahler of Helena Mont. who had known Mrs. [Margaret Walker] Salisbury and her sister Mrs. Fiske [Julia Walker Fisk] also Mrs. Salisbury’s mother19 who was sister to James [G.] Blaine Two pictures of the Ladies Committee were taken‒ We had a pleasant time everything satisfactory except there were not enough people After coming home we had losts of visitors. {p. 54}

19 January 1901 • Saturday

Today finishes proceedings of the Convention and the strangers are beginning to leave town‒ I have prepared the notice of the Library of Great Classics and M. A. J. Lyon is very much pleased with what I have written and insisted on keeping the original‒ he bought one of my books and of course I was very glad. I must not promise to do so many favors of that kind, it takes time and brains and one seldom gets much satisfaction and these things cannot be done without intense thought and brain work is exhaustive. {p. 55}

20 January 1901 • Sunday

Rested all the forenoon and then went to the Tabernacle, Louise with me‒ services were extra good Samuel [M.] Taylor son of Jos. E. Taylor and Lissie [Lisador Williams Taylor], just came home from a mission was the first speaker, then President George Q. Cannon who related something of his visit to the Sandwich Islands and gave some reminescences of his first mission 50 years previous. The natives kept with ceremony the Semi-centennial on the 12th. of December 1900. I went to Annie’s and took dinner with them all the family at table, visited some afterwards and then came home alone. Commenced writing on Sister Jane B. [Ballantyne] Taylor notice A Tribute of Love for my paper, and tried to finish but could not. Read some and wrote in my journal– {p. 56}

21 January 1901 • Monday

<Went up to see Aunt Zina [Diantha Huntington Young]> Today was rainy at first then bright20 sunshine and then rain alternating. It is the birthday anniversary of Sister Eliza R. Snow [Smith], 97th. I would gladly have made some sort of gathering of her old friends but could not. Reapers Club met and quite a full meeting. Queen Victoria is very ill and yet they try to keep it to themselves‒ but the public demand news and it seems doubtful about her life. Changes indeed were the Queen to pass away, though Prince of Wales [Albert Edward] has really been much changed in the last few years. One can scarcely believe however he would be as wise and prudent as his mother has been the Bishop of London Dr. Mandell Creighten is dead buried last Thursday‒ {p. 57}

22 January 1901 • Tuesday

<Board meeting Jan. 22nd> Went up to see Aunt Zina and had a talk with her about several things but most about Phebe [Young] Beatie being a member of the Board of the Relief Society. Afterwards went to Dr. Pratt’s and had lunch and talked with [Charles William] Penrose and Dr. and with Josephine [Hardie Pratt][,] Louis [L. B.] Pratt’s wife, then we held Board meeting and considered all about celebrating the anniversary of Sister Zina’s birthday and Sister Jane S. Richards Sister [Bathsheba] Smith preseded and I acted as Secretary I nominated Sister Beatie & she was made a member of the Board {p. 58}

23 January 1901 • Wednesday

Last evening I wrote to Phebe and sent off the letter to her in Pacific Grove California telling her she had been made a member of our General Board. We have talked over many things today about the party to be given. I am very busy with my many duties and cares and it seems impossible to do all one feels anxious about, and desirous of accomplishing. The Legislature is in session and last night in caucus Mr. Kearns got 19. votes, so that it is today reasonably expected he will be elected. Public greatly exercised over it and many unpleasant remarks made about it, as the Tribune says the Church has done the work in view of Railroading and so on. Hon. Thomas Kearns elected 37 votes {p. 59}

24 January 1901 • Thursday

This is Sydney [W. Sears]’s birthday also little Eleanor [Addy Cannon]’s and Will [William W.] Woods. I suppose they will make some demonstration as he will be sixty years old, but one cannot tell‒ Sidney would be thirty years old and Eleanor ten if they were living‒ beautiful children transplanted to a better world, where they may have development without the powers of evil that prevail here. Mr. & Mrs. [Charles L.] Dahler came to see me and bought one of my books. Sister S. J. Cannon Sister E. J. Stevenson & Sister Annie T. Hyde were all in the office and talked over the party and made suggestions and so on‒ and the preparations are being carried out satisfactorily‒ {p. 60}

25 January 1901 • Friday

I have been very miserable all day long, so much to do reading proof and not feeling very well either. Went down to Beardsley’s to lunch and while there who should come but Kearns the newly elected Senator for Utah, and began conversation finally invited me to Washington to attend the inaugural ceremonies of [William] McKinley. I half promised to go he is to get my for [fare] and pay all expenses. Paid me very high compliments and was more than gracious to me‒ would procure me an interview with McKinley and so forth and so on. Lizzie [Elizabeth Stevenson] Wilcox bought one of my books for the 17th. Ward Relief Society. {p. 61}

26 January 1901 • Saturday

This is such a busy day and I was late coming up making up the paper and reading last proofs, and fussing over the party for Aunt Zina & Sister Richards, finally here came Governor Wells and Col. Burton to know when & where they would find me to go to the Reception and Emily Katz with them, Margaret Caine and J. Fewson Smith were here also Olive and all was confusion. I got through the day somehow and at 4 o’clock sisters came from the meeting Mrs. J. [Julia Morris] Golightly Mrs. Mary E. [Knight] Bassett Mrs. R. E. [Rebecca Beesley] Doolan and &c Sarah J. Cannon & Maria Dougall and we went over everything again then came Emily [Tanner] Richards. This is Sep [Septimus Whitney Sears]’s birthday he is 27 today I think, Emmeline came down here to sleep‒ {p. 62}

27 January 1901 • Sunday

Today Emmeline was here with me and we were quite happy together, while we were having lunch up stairs callers came and one was Sarah Jane Cannon, she came to talk of the party after we had really settled everything last night. She stayed an hour or so talking over things and then I had to dress and hurry over to Belle’s to Sep’s birthday dinner, Turkey cranberry sauce and all the appurtenances of a choice dinner, suet pudding roly-poly, I did not stay long afterwards eleven of us Belle and Septimus, Dot [S. Isabel Sears Buchholz] & Will [Charles William Buchholz], Sep & Lucile, Eugene & Brenton Marian & Lucile [Buchholz] (baby) and myself. How well I recall when Sep was born such rejoicing yesterday was his birthday anniversary {p. 63}

28 January 1901 • Monday

<Ann C. [Cannon] Woodbury’s Birthday (69)> In the morning ordered the engraving of the invitations and then made ready for the meeting in the afternoon and by 3 p.m. the D.R.21 sisters came and also Mrs. [Eliza Hill] Titcomb from the Fifth East Hotel and then we discussed whether we should have an entertainment or not and most of us preferred giving the money. After the meeting I went home to dress and even then it was getting late‒ but got ready & no cars were running and Belle & myself walked up to first Ave and I got in. I knew a carriage was waiting for me at the Templeton but it was after nine before the power came on, I went direct to the Hotel and sent up word to the Governor and was soon in my place by him at the receiving line. Senator Kearns was next then Mayor Thompson & wife22 then Gen. [Robert T.] Burton‒ {p. 64}

29 January 1901 • Tuesday

<Annie [Anna] Sears Young very ill thought to be dying with diphtheria> I got along fine in receiving behind me stood Dr. [Samuel H.] Pinkerton though I know not what for. Hundreds of people came & were introduced. President George Q. Cannon and Mrs. Lewis [Mary Alice Cannon] Cannon, his daughter. John Henry Smith and Brigham Young & Reed Smoot and wife23 were there. Tuesday morning Jan. 29. 1901. Alice Hooper [Palmer] came last night and was here to wait on me this morning. I felt much better than usual notwithstanding the late hour I had reached home half-past twelve, and even then did some reading. I have had a busy day and at evening went down to see my sister24 and found her better‒ had passed a good night comparatively. I read my revise tonight and came home to supper went over to see Belle & bid Eugene Good bye‒ he is going to Park City tomorrow morning. {p. 65}

30 January 1901 • Wednesday

Anna Sears Young is dead passed away at 12.30. with diphtheria‒ buried today at one p.m. Belle & Sep went with Mr. Sears to the cemetery– one of the most distressing deaths imaginable little girl three years old died 8 days before of same disease. I have had a most unpleasant day‒ feeling sad and gloomy and Annie’s girl left her. It seems almost impossible to keep help. This morning Eugene went from home and it did seem sad‒ it is always sad when boys or girls go out from the paternal home into the great world without mother or home influence. Almost all the preparations are made, set out to do the finishing and feel that I really must and then go home, had a terrible tiresome day and no relief from care {p. 66}

31 January 1901 • Thursday

Yesterday was bright with sunshine but today is somewhat gloomy and dark, Sister [Rebecca Smith] Standring of Lehi was at the office when I reached there, had to settle bills and get souvenirs tied with bows. and do a dozen other things and then rush off Susan [Noble] Grant & Lucy A. Clark from the North came and all helped tie the cards. I reached Mrs. F. [Franklin] S. Richards [Emily Tanner Richards] home at about half-past one‒ Br. [Nathan] Tanner and Sister [Rhoda Taylor] Lyman were there and Sister Jane S. Richards from Ogden‒ The house was beautifully decorated and furnished with everything to gladden the eye. Guests Prest. L. [Lorenzo] Snow & Minnie Prest. Geo. Q. Cannon & Sarah Jane, Prest. Jos. F. Smith Julina [Lambson Smith] & Sarah [Richards Smith] John H. [Smith]25 & Josephine [Groesbeck Smith], Rudger Clawson & Lydia [Spencer Clawson], Bishop Winder & Maria [Burnham Winder], Patriarch [John] Smith. <&> Helen [Hellen Fisher Smith] and many others N. [Naamah] Twiss Young M. P. [Margaret Pierce] Young Amelia F. [Folsom] Young, Brigham [Young Jr.] & Katie [Catherine Spencer] Young‒ {p. 67}

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January 1901, The Diaries of Emmeline B. Wells, accessed July 21, 2024