Monday, July 1, 1895 This is known here as “Dominion Day” and is a public holiday. It is the 28th birthday of the Confederation—a union of the British possessions on the continent of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Received a dispatch from Brother Jack, as follows:
“Frank will be here tomorrow. Decided to make flying visit home. Have meeting on arrival and consult with Abraham. Will telegraph you fully result of meeting.”
This has evidently been sent before he received mine of yesterday, or he would have given us word about the health of the families.
Tuesday, July 2, 1895 Anxious to get word from home about the subject matter of my Sunday dispatch. Shortly afterwards received the following dispatch, and this was so unsatisfactory that I went to the telegraph office to send another when I received the following, which was gratifying to us all:
(first dispatch) “Families all well including Beebe’s children; everything moving along quietly.”
(second) “Utah Company met today, Abraham present. Plan to raise 200,000 for your personal needs on Sugar Bonds holding railroad bonds free from entanglement. Agreed upon. G. A. Purbeck’s dismissal sent. Frank returns East Friday. Lewis and girls start tomorrow evening. Forty-one pounds of gold from Sterling deposited yesterday. Langford brings good report of property. Letter follows.”
I wrote a letter to Mr. Peabody, Port Townsend, and told him that I would want the five berths as agreed upon between us on Sunday.
Wednesday, July 3, 1895. Mr. Peabody telegraphed me this afternoon that “original eleven provided with hurricane deck accommodations, balance between decks.” I was both surprised and disappointed at receiving this word. No agreement could have been more definite than ours concerning the saving of berths for my children. If he breaks his word on this point, how can he be trusted on anything else? I scarcely dare trust myself and our company to take a 14 days’ voyage under an arrangement with a man who holds his word as lightly as he appears to have done. I wrote him a letter and sent him this telegraphic message:
arrangement agreement was hurricane deck and not between decks. Have written you.”
I have been uneasy about business at home and in the East, and particularly about Frank being left at New York in that broiling heat awaiting our action. This has detracted from the pleasure of the trip, and I have been in doubt as to whether I would not have to go back instead of going to Alaska. This I have written in my letters home. The dispatches I have received have removed this feeling. This morning I received another one of the same tenor. Brother Jack says:
“Clayton says no business suffering account absence. Lewis and others will not start until tomorrow.”
Thursday, July 4, 1895 President Smith and wife, Sister Woodruff and my wife and myself went across the Strait to Port Angeles in the State of Washington. We did not land; but remained on the “Islander” and returned on its return trip to Victoria. It was quite cold, so much so that we were chilled through standing on the deck and were glad to seek the shelter of the cabin on the return.
Friday, July 5, 1895 I received the following dispatch from Bro[t]her N. W. Clayton, dated Echo:
“Frank on way East. I accompany to Evanston. All looks well.”
Also another from Mr. C. K. Bannister, Engineer of the Pioneer Power Co.:
“Frank asked Abraham to write you for authority to protect our matters. Conditions imperative. Please wire him authority.”
Mr. Peabody sent me a reply to my letter of the 2nd., in which he expressed the hope that his explanations would be satisfactory[.] I replied that there were two points that were not explained: First, why his sale of berths was not as binding as the sales of his agents. Second, why he did not, when he learned that the berths had been sold, advise me, instead of waiting till I wrote to him on Tuesday.
Saturday, July 6, 1895. Had a long walk today with Brother & Sister Smith and Sister Woodruff and Ovando Beebe and Blanche Woodruff and my wife on the shore of the Sound, gathering shells, pebbles, &c.
Received a reply from Mr. Peabody which was satisfactory.
Sunday, July 7, 1895 I dropped a short note to Mr. Peabody expressing my satisfaction at his explanations. The party, with the exception of President Woodruff, waited for upwards of an hour for the arrival of the City of Kingston. She brought my children, Lewis, Hester, Rosannah, Emily and Carol. They were all in excellent health and had left all at home well. They had enjoyed their trip very much. They put up at the New England Hotel, where President Woodruff’s children were stopping. I feel thankful for the safe arrival of these children.
Monday, July 8, 1895 Engaged in making purchases of various articles necessary to our comfort on the voyage.
At 5 p.m. Brother Beebe led us to the wharf, where he had chartered a small steam launch for a sail. Nine of us rode in the launch and seven in a nice row boat with an awning over it which was towed behind. The launch had for its fuel naptha of which it consumed two gallons an hour. The engine, the owner, Mr. Mackintosh, said was called 4 horse, but was no more than 3 horse. It drove the boat about 7 or 7 1/2 miles per hours. The reservoir for the naptha held about 80 gallons. The cost of the launch at Tacoma, where it was built, was $1060, and the duty to bring it into British Columbia $270. Such a vessel would be convenient for our Salt Lake; but perhaps not so much so as one we saw start on a sail as we started. It was a steam launch and cast $8000 in England. It was a superior looking launch. Our sail was to Esquimalt and around its harbor, and then back to Victoria and up under the drawbridge into what is known as the Gorge. This trip can only be made at high tide as the water rushes through a narrow place when rising or running out in such velocity as to prevent a boat from going through even if the water were deep enough. But the beauty of the scenery up this Gorge was as great, if not greater than anything of the kind I ever saw. The water was deep and the timber grew down to the edge, making in places very picturesque effects. The banks were full of curves and indentations, and presented constant changes which gave great variety to the scenery. I do not recall a sail that ever gave me such pleasure. Instead of young people taking rides in buggies as they do with us, I judge they take their recreation and enjoyment on the water; for we met large numbers of boats of various kinds, besides canoes and race boats, some containing a number of young people; others containing only two—a young man and a young woman. In some the girls did the rowing; in others the men, and in others the rowers were of both sexes. We were out for three hours, and the cost for the party was $5.
Tuesday, July 9, 1895 Received a letter this morning from Mr. Peabody in which he repeats his promise to land us in Tacoma to our thorough and entire satisfaction. Capt. Roberts of the Willapa brought the letter and I had some conversation with him. He intends to do everything in his power to make our trip a pleasure to us. One of the crank pins of the steamer broke on her return voyage, and the repairing of this will detain the vessel a day, so we will not sail till Thursday, the 11th. As my letters from my son Abraham will explain some things worth preserving I append copies of them:1
Salt Lake City, Utah, <July 1st,> 189<5.>
Hon. George Q. Cannon,
Portland House, Portland, Oregon.
My Dear Father:-
Your favor of June 28th just came to hand this morning. I was much pleased to hear of the improvement in President Woodruff’s health and hope he will soon be entirely well, and that the health of all the party may improve. Shortly after receiving your letter I was shown a telegram which you sent Brother Jack, and Lewis and the girls are making every preparation to make the trip to Alaska as proposed.
After you left for the North, John Q. and myself consulted together and decided upon making Brother John A. Evans the business manager of the NEWS, the change occurring in the management this morning. I believe he is the best man we can obtain for the position, and I feel sure there will be no difficulty in getting him to resign the position whenever any other person wants it, or change is desired. I feel that this change will be for the good of myself and the business as my time is very much occupied at present in consideration of railroad matters which are pressing very hard upon me. Railroad talk is very common among the people of Salt Lake, and I had some difficulty in preventing some of our business men from endorsing and aiding financially the scheme proposed by railroad men from San Diego, known as the Railroad Men’s Railway, which plan I believe is impracticable and in any event would do injury to our proposed line to the Coast. We have pledges of a number of business men to sustain us in the movement we are endeavoring to inaugurate, and Mayor Baskin has expressed himself strongly in favor of the project. I today had an interview with a gentleman from Boston and one from Grand Junction who are here looking over the country with a view to building a road through the Du Chesne Valley via Provo Canyon to Provo city. They desire the co-operation of our railroad interest with theirs. I think they could be of mutual benefit.
I today accompanied Jerry Langford and Orson Smith to the Commercial National Bank where we deposited forty-one pounds five and one-tenth ounces of virgin gold. Cashier Donnellen said it was the largest brick of gold he ever saw, the value of which is somewhere in the neighborhood of $8,000.oo. The deposit of this brick pleased the bank officials very much. This was the result of a thirteen days run of the two Huntington mills. The stamp mill is now placed in a position on the Chispa property and as soon as the pipe line is finished, which will require until about the end of the present month, they will again run this mill, when they expect to treat fifty tons of ore per day, from which a moderate estimate would give a value of $1,000.oo per day at an expense of $300.oo, or a net profit of $700.oo per day. Jerry Langford says the property is without equal in that country, and he has no doubt that it will soon pay all its debts and begin to yield dividends to the stockholders.
A member of the Brigham Young Academy Board told me today with a view to have me mention the subject to the Presidency, that Benjamin Cluff, Jr., has become president of a canal company in Idaho which occupies so much of his time that it is thought he will not pay much attention to the Academy during the next school season. It is said that Brother
C<K>arl G. Maeser would be pleased to again accept the principalship of this institution if the Presidency would request him to do so. I believe such a change would be for the benefit of the institution, both spiritually and financially, as he would conduct it economically, and we certainly know that the true spirit work is with Brother Maeser.
I have been informed since you left that John Beck has fallen into the hands of Charles and Arthur Stayner, who are “milking” him to advance some of their “wild cat” schemes. John Beck’s wife says they have induced him to put up money on a so-called gold property in Idaho. He is also encouraged by them to believe that he is a great spiritual leader and should occupy a prominent ecclesiastical position. Mrs. Beck is very much worried over his condition, as he spends almost his whole time with the Stayners to the neglect of his business and family. With the Stayners, Orson Whitney and B. S. Young seem to be operating, and Orson has been engaged to write John Beck’s biography. I am told that Charley Stayner has made John Beck believe that he (Stayner) is to be the next leader of the Church, for he is a spirit of a great personage who has lived upon the earth and has now come again to lead the people out of trouble. In this case, John Beck is to be made an Apostle. The Stayners have expressed considerable feeling against the Cannons, and say that when this change occurs the Cannons will be left entirely out of consideration. Brother Beck’s wife seems to be quite worried about his present condition and desires to know what she should do to get John Beck away from these associates. I told her that if she could produce evidence to show that the Stayners were teaching false doctrine they could be tried for their fellowship, but unless she and others were willing to testify against them, no Church court would entertain a case. Mr. Bamberger says that your statement to him that John Beck could not be trusted has been fully verified for he has deserted Bamberger entirely, and does not
ex<ac>cept his counsel in many matters which would be to his interest. Nevertheless, I think he can be controlled in a proper manner. Accept my love for yourself and Aunt Carlie, and remember me kindly to the brethren.
Your Affectionate Son,
[signed] Abraham H. Cannon
Salt Lake City, Utah, <July 2nd,> 189<5.>
Hon. George Q. Cannon,
Driard Hotel, Victoria, B.C.
My Dear Father:-
Robert C. Lund and myself have had an interview this morning with Robert Brewster Stanton, who just returned last evening from Cedar City. He has secured a bond on Thomas Taylor’s properties around Cedar, though the terms of the bond are not as favorable as desired. Nevertheless the property can be handled whenever we desire to use it, so that it will be advantageous to any iron company that might be organized. On Mr. Stanton’s arrival in this city he found letters awaiting him from San Francisco which inform him that the Japanese Consul at San Francisco, acting under instructions from his government, has been making investigations of the Pacific Coast to ascertain which is the best point for the steamship company, which was mentioned to you before you left, to establish its landing place. This Consul has recommended Portland as being the best available point at the present time, there being railroad connections at this point with the Union Pacific and Northern Pacific and the Great Northern railways. Mr. Stanton has received assurances, however, that the Japanese Consul will recommend to the government the selection of San Diego as the port of entrance, providing some representative of our proposed Southern Utah Company shall give assurances for the construction of this road. Mr. Stanton’s proposition is therefore as follows:
He will go east within a day or two and secure from the Presidents of three of the great railroads, such as the Missouri Pacific, Chicago & Rock Island, who connect with the Rio Grand Western and with the Union Pacific, assurances of friendliness for the road
to <from> Salt Lake City to San Diego. These papers he feels confident he can obtain, as he is personally acquainted with the Presidents and Managers of a number of railroads in the East. These paper[s] secured he will return to this city and will then expect me to go with him to San Francisco, where I can personally converse with the Japanese Consul, and with his friend, through whom we are to operate in getting Japanese connections. I can also investigate the port at San Diego and the advantages which it affords for railroad connection. After making such an examination as I desire, if the outlook is favorable, he would want me to accompany him and his friend to Japan, where he assures me that such papers can be had secured from the government and from the steamship company as will guarantee their friendliness and co-operation with the proposed railway. Negotiations could also be had looking to the procuring of some financial assistance for the building of this road. All the expenses of Mr. Stanton to the East and back to San Francisco he proposes to pay himself, but should it be thought advisable for us to make the trip to Japan he would want his expenses paid and some little means to leave with his family in California. The trip to Japan and the investigation in California would perhaps occupy sixty days time. I present the matter thus fully to you with a desire that you should give me counsel as to what I shall do in this matter. Brother Lund favors the idea of my making the trip. Of course I would not think of doing so unless there was some advantage that would occur to the company through the trip and the investigations.
Mr. Stanton, Robert Lund and myself are going to Ogden this afternoon to talk with Frank about our plans. Frank is also going to make every effort in the East to secure the control, or at least trackage facilities, of the road from this city to Milford. If he can do this there will be immediate advantage given to our Southern Utah enterprise which will help us very materially.
The Utah Company met yesterday as you were informed by telegram. It was decided by the members of the firm that Frank should press his negotiations in the East for the loan of $500,000.oo to as early a decision as possible, though it seems doubtful that Nephi Clayton will furnish such a statement of the railway and Beach business as will encourage the loan. Should Frank fail in procuring this loan, it was decided that he should endeavor to procure on the Sugar bonds a loan for personal use of the Presidency of $200,000.oo, leaving the railway and Beach bonds to be used for securing money in this city to begin operations without further delay. I believe the money can be procured on these bonds without going outside of the Territory, and Brother Jack was of the opinion that $200,000.oo would be sufficient to meet the necessities of the Presidency.
Lewis and the girls intended to start today to meet you, but on receipt of your letter of June 29th, wherein you say they will have ample time by starting tomorrow, they decided to wait until tomorrow. I handed Lewis $750.oo, as I did not understand from your letter whether you desired
me him to bring you $500.oo net, or that he was to pay his expenses out of it. In order to be on the safe side, therefore, I handed him $750.oo out of which he will have to pay nearly $250.oo for the expenses of himself and the girls for transportation, etc. to meet you.
I hope you are well and prospering. Accept my love for yourself and Aunt Carlie, and remember me kindly to all the party. It pleases me very much to know that Pres. Woodruff is improving in health. I hope neither you nor he will worry about business matters, as everything will be done to meet your wishes, and I am sure no disaster will happen through your absence.
Your Affectionate Son,
[signed] A. H. Cannon2
After dinner Brother Beebe again hired the steam launch for the purpose of again visiting the Gorge. We went higher up than we did yesterday. There was a bridge across the Inlet beyond which the boatman did not desire to go; but in swinging round, which he did two or three times, he swung the row boat, which was attached astern by a rope, against one of the piles of the bridge in such a manner that a minute or two it seemed as though the row boat would be swung clear around the pile and be upset. Yesterday I had sat in the launch, and the young people—Blanche Woodruff and her neice, Phoebe Scholes, and my four girls and Lewis—sat in the row boat; but on coming down to embark I found Lewis, Phoebe Scholes, Alice Woodruff and Hester, Rosannah and Emily in the row boat, which today had no awning over it, and Blanche Woodruff and my daughter Carol seated in the launch. As there would be nine in the launch without me I took my seat in the row boat to be company for the children and to visit with them; and when we struck this pile I was glad I did, for the peril of some injury being done was great. Lewis, as we came up to the pile, braced himself against it to prevent the shock to the boat, but the strain was so great from the launch on the rope that it broke. I viewed this as providential, for if the rope had not broken we were in danger of being overturned; and though the water was shallow in places, right at this spot it was deeper and the tide was running so strong that it would have been difficult for a strong man, even if he could have found footing, to have withstood being carried away. After the rope broke we drifted with the tide for some distance, then Lewis and I took the oars and rowed back. In the meantime the launch sailed after us under the bridge and ran aground. We who were in the row boat landed on the bank below the bridge, and Lewis rowed back to the launch and took all out that the row boat could safely carry, so as to lighten it, and landed them also; and then went back to the launch and brought Presidents Woodruff and Smith away. Brother Ovando Beebe and the boatman then succeeded in getting the launch afloat again, and we all resumed our places in the launch and row boat and returned to Victoria. I feel very thankful that no harm was done to any of us more than a fright; for the children were quite alarmed and it looked for a minute as if we would all be spilled in the water.
Wednesday, July 10, 1895 Received the following letter from Abraham, which I submitted to Presidents Woodruff and Smith and telegraphed a reply:
“My dear Father:
I have just had an interview with Jerry Langford, who has explained to me a proposition which he desires me to present to yourself and the brethren for your consideration: There is a gold prospect located about sixty miles from your present properties at Montgomery, Nevada, and about seventy-five miles from the nearest railway station. These prospects have only been located a short time, but such glowing reports of their value came to Brother Langford that he had several shafts sunk upon the property, the results of which was that the assays showed about $50 gold, exclusive of the pieces of free gold which he found in the rock and which were extracted before the assays were made. One streak of ore attached to the hanging wall is five feet in width and four hundred feet in length. The assays from along the face of this wall at various points shows the above value. The superintendent of the “Johnnie” mine, who is working for the Sterling Company, told Brother Langford it was the finest prospect he had ever seen, and Jerry himself thinks that the property is worth four times all of the Sterling property put together.
He has secured an option on these prospects, which expires August 1st, for $100,000, $2000 of which is payable August 1st, $23000 October 1st, and $25000 each three months thereafter. The question which Brother Langford now desires answered is: Shall he purchase this property for the Sterling Mining Company. He does not desire the company to buy unless they feel that it would be a good thing, though he will undoubtedly organize another company in a private way to purchase this property, if the Sterling Company decide to reject the proposition. He sunk a twenty foot shaft at a point seven miles from the property and found sufficient water for all purposes at a depth of twenty feet.
He says that if the Sterling Company desire to buy he would not ask the members of the company to assess themselves for the purchase of this property, but he would want the privilege of using the output of the Sterling properties for the payment of the $25,000. In other words, instead of applying the proceeds of your present properties for the payment of the obligations at the bank, he would want to use the first $25000 to apply on the purchase price of these claims, called the “Confidence” mines. The other payments of $75,000 he feels sure could be made from the output of the claims themselves. He says that in a year’s time he could place more money in the hands of the Sterling Company, after having paid for these claims, than if he operates exclusively on the present properties.
I have now presented to you the matter as he presented it to me. Should you feel at all like considering this proposition, I would recommend, as I told him I would do, that you send an expert to the property to make a careful examination of the prospects, taking assays of the various rocks, and on receiving the report of this individual, to decide upon your course of action. I told Brother Langford I expected I would receive some answer from you by the 10th inst. I therefore hope it will be convenient for you to send an immediate reply to this inquiry.
Hoping you are well and with love to yourself and Aunt Carlie, and kindest regards to all the party, I remain,
Your affectionate son, A. H. Cannon.”
The following reply was written to Abraham and signed by the First Presidency:
“Your favor of the 3rd, conveying to us the proposition of Brother Langford, has been received and after some consideration we have decided, on behalf of the Sterling Co., to accept the proposition; that is, take his option, and if the property proves upon the examination of an expert to be all that is reported, to allow $25,000 to be taken from the earnings of the Sterling and appropriated for the first payment on the “Confidence”. We sent you over President Cannon’s signature a dispatch this morning as follows: [blank]
We did not say in that dispatch that our acceptance of the proposition was contingent upon the favorable report of the expert, for we naturally supposed that that would be understood. We certainly do not want the property unless it is one that will be at least worth a great deal more than we pay for it and the risk we run. Of course, you will see that proper steps are taken, in time, to pay the $2000 on the 1st of August, providing the report of expert is favorable. It may be that the $2000 will have to be sent some distance to be paid; if so, care will have to be taken to have it sent in time. Of this we are not advised and merely make this remark by way of caution.
There is one point in your letter that is not cleared up. What is the reason that a well was dug seven miles distant from property? Is that the nearest point at which water can be reached? If so, how is it proposed to carry it to the property? What are Brother Langford’s arrangements for conveying water that distance both summer and winter? It seems to us a very difficult proposition to get water for milling and other purposes out of a well 20 ft. deep and 7 miles distant. Who are the present owners? How extensively has the property been worked? Care will have to be taken, if property should be bought, in making payments, to have a clear title and the property thoroughly secured. All these details your business judgment will suggest to you in case you have to act before we return. When you write give us all details that you can regarding these points.
According to present arrangements we shall be in Tacoma, if all goes well, on the 25th. Letters can be sent to us, if the porter be trusty, with the car. If you choose you can write to us in care of C. E. Brown, Esq., U.P. Pass. Agent, 135 3rd Street, Portland.
We join in love to you and all the brethren.
We remain your brethren,”
Thursday, July 11, 1895 Dictated a letter, for Lewis to write, to my son Brigham at Munich.
The Willapa arrived at the Warf about 10 o’clock, and we all went aboard. Mr. Peabody was on the vessel, and he told me he never felt more ashamed in his life than he did about my children having to go between decks. He said anything he could do he wanted me to command him. Two of the girls had a state room to themselves; the staterooms between decks had three berths; and the other two girls occupied a state room and Miss Phoebe Scholes slept in one of the berths.
Friday, July 12, 1895 After breakfast this morning we reached Nanaimo, where we stopped three hours and took on coal. The scenery this morning was very fine, indeed it was so throughout the day. In the evening we passed through Seymour Narrows—a narrow and, if not taken at the right condition of the tide, dangerous channel. The tide is said to run through here at times at the rate of 24 miles an hour and ships have been wrecked here. It was very interesting to us all, and there were times when it appeares as if there were no passage through for the vessel, and in a short time the passage would open quite clear and we would glide through.
Saturday, July 13, 1895 For about four hours today we were in Queen Charlotte’s Sound, and we felt the influence of the ocean waves. All the girls were more or less sick, especially Hester, whom we all thought, and she herself too, would not be sick; Emily was the least sick of any. We crossed Millbank Sound afterwards, and the swell was heavy and affected all who were inclined to seasickness, though the morning’s experience had prepared them somewhat for this rocking. We were one hour and a half crossing this Sound. It rained considerably this afternoon.
Sunday, July 14, 1895 Misty, and a drizzling rain fell occasionally. The scenery is very grand and picturesque.
Some of the passengers proposed that we should have religious services. There are three men whom I take to be preachers (Presbyterians). One of them, a young man by the name of Sterling conducted the services. He led the singing and did the praying and talking, except one prayer which he called on a preacher of the name of Pattullo to offer. Mr. Sterling did not deliver a regular sermon, but read the first chapter of John and commented upon it. While no fault could be found with his language and delivery, the substance of his remarks amounted to nothing.
Monday, July 15, 1895 The day is fine and we were able to see the surrounding scenery to advantage. Today has been an exciting day, especially for the young people. Porpoises and whales were frequently seen. Everybody could get a good idea of their appearance. An iceberg also aroused enthusiasm. But before nightfall so many had been seen that they ceased to excite more than passing interest. We saw two glaciers today in plain sight, one without a name and the other called Patterson Glacier; besides these we saw in the distance another glacier. The surface of these glaciers, looking at them with the field glass, appeared somewhat rough. They seemed to extend miles and miles back into the mountains and were miles in width. They had the appearance of large, wide rivers solidly frozen. I had had some conversation with Capt. Roberts concerning the possibility of securing ice for the use of the ship, and whether this had the effect to induce him to attempt to secure some, I do not know, but he had the vessel steered close up to one of the largest
that we had icebergs that we had met, and as we came up to it and came in contact with it, a number of the passengers became quite excited, as they had read, doubtless, about bergs toppling over and doing damage to or sinking the vessel that might be alongside of it. The excitement and apprehensions were not lessened when a large part of the berg broke off through the jar of the ship striking it. Under the Captain’s directions the sailors succeeded in hoisting aboard a large block of ice with which the ship’s ice chest was replenished. The ice was as clear as crystal, and hard, apparently, as stone. I said to my children it was worth the journey from home to meet such an adventure as this, for in all my travels I had never seen a ship go up alongside an iceberg at sea and secure a supply of ice. Mr. Peabody thought the vessel in danger as we went alongside the berg and shouted for the Captain to push the vessel astern. Captain Roberts was very cool and self-possessed.
Tuesday, July 16, 1895 The vessel reached Junean [Juneau] last night about eleven o’clock. I did not sit up to see the town, but this morning on arising I found the steamer “Queen”—a very elegant vessel which carries passengers and freight from San Francisco to Alaska and return—tied up at a wharf near us. She is carrying a large number of passengers and she passed us last evening. Our little vessel looked very diminutive and poor alongside her. We consoled ourselves, however, with the reflection that we were making the trip at half the price we would have to pay for passage on her, and, though she might be more roomy, we were entirely satisfied that we had better meals and a better supplied table than her passengers had; for it would be difficult if not impossible to have better food and better cooked than ours[.] Junean is built on the edge of the mountains, and seems a strange situation for a town; the streets are narrow and there seems to be no room for houses unless they climb the side of the mountain; but it is an important place, being the outfitting point for the mines in this vicinity and on the Yukon. We remained here several hours, and then crossed over to Douglas Island, a few miles distant, and examined the famous Treadwell mine. Here are the largest stamp mills in the United States, or, perhaps, in the world. In one mill there are two hundred and forty stamps, and in another, owned by the same company, there are sixty stamps. The rock in which the gold is found is quarried like limestone. It is not rich in gold, probably not averaging higher than five dollars a ton, but it is worked very cheaply, the cost of working it being $1.87 a ton. The large dividends which are declared arise from the immense quantity of rock that is worked. From all that I can learn, Alaska is going to yield a large amount of precious metals and I would not be surprised to hear of developments of very rich mines.
Capt. Roberts decided to sail for Sitka before going to Glacier Bay, as he had proposed. We did not remain very long at Douglas Island.
Wednesday, July 17, 1895 It was misty this morning and a light, drizzling rain fell. We reached Sitka about 11 o’clock a.m., but sailed past up Silver Bay to see a beautiful waterfall. The scenery in this Bay was most picturesque; in fact, since daylight we have passed through scenery as grand as any on the route. We returned to Sitka and remained there four hours, during which time we took a long tramp to Indian River, a beautifully clear stream, and saw the falls in the river. The children enjoyed this walk very much, as it was a new thing for them to pass through such grand woods as we found in going to the river and back. We visited the Greek Church here for which we each paid fifty cents entrance fee. There were a number of old paintings here, one, of the Madonna, being considered very valuable. Sitka appears to be the most favorably situated for a city of any of the places which we have seen in Alaska. The harbor is most beautiful; numerous islands, very picturesque in form, are scattered around the harbor, making scenery grander and more attractive than I ever before witnessed of this character.
I had a call while here from Mr. Sheakley, the son of Governor Sheakley of Alaska. His father, the Governor, and myself served together in Congress. He is now absent on a visit to another part of Alaska.
At 4 o’clock we left Sitka for Glacier Bay.
Thursday, July 18, 1895 A cold morning; mists were heavy; a light drizzling rain fell; icebergs in plenty all around; these have become so numerous that they almost cease to attract attention, excepting when we see one of unusual beauty, for some of them are very beautiful, being so intensely blue and filled with caves and grottoes, which would seem fitting abodes for mermaids, if such creatures existed. We stopped this morning for a short time in Bartlett Bay to unload some freight. Here a fisherman by the name of Wm. Raymond lives, but the principal inhabitants are Indians. I bought a barrel of salted bellies of salmon and a hundred pounds of smoke-dried boneless salmon. I paid him $15 for the barrel (200 lbs.) and $10 for the dried fish. President Woodruff ordered half a barrel of salted fish and when we returned from Muir Glacier we called at this point to get some freight and in lifting the half barrel aboard, by some carelessness of the men, it slipped out of their hands, fell overboard and was lost. It was a loss of $7.50 to the poor fisherman and a disappointment to President Woodruff. Glacier Bay, through which we sailed, is very full of icebergs. Muir Glacier soon came in sight and we anchored at a point convenient for those to land who desired to ascend the glacier. Three boatloads of passengers were landed for this purpose, among whom were my four daughters and son. They were absent from the vessel three hours and a half and had quite a tramp, but all expressed themselves as being abundantly repaid by what they saw. After their departure the captain had the vessel moved close up to the front of the glacier, so close that it appeared no more than two stones’ throw distance, but in the presence of such a wall of ice, so tremendously high as this glacier is, distances are deceptive. With this glacier before us the sight was awfully and indescribably grand; every few minutes the ice would fall away from the face of the glacier, sometimes in enormously large bodies, with a crash like the loudest thunder and creating a tremendous commotion in the sea. The width of this glacier is miles and it flows at the rate of [blank][.] The ice assumes the most fantastic forms; pinnacles, battlements, towers, caves, crevasses, and we saw a very beautiful natural bridge, being an arch of ice which spanned an enormous crevasse. We remained in front of this glacier between three and four hours. We all felt that this was one of the grandest sights that we had ever seen, equaled perhaps only by Niagara Falls for sublimity. This is the highest point north of our voyage, and the nights at this season of the year are almost continuous daylight, and, I suppose, in midwinter the darkness in the twenty-four hours will be equally long. After all the party had returned to the vessel, we steamed off on our return. My son Lewis came very nearly having a serious accident while on the top of the glacier. While standing looking down a crevasse through which a torrent of water was rushing, he ventured farther on the overhanging edge than any of the rest and the ice gave way beneath him; but he succeeded in saving himself. While doing so he cut his hand. We afterwards touched at Bartlett Bay and were detained some time loading boxes of salmon.
Friday, July 19, 1895 The scenery was grandly picturesque to-day on our voyage, and we reached Taku Glacier about 2 o’clock. Not far from this glacier there is what is called a “dead glacier”, that throws off no icebergs, but seems to be, from the description that is given, decaying. We steamed close up to the Taku Glacier, and in going so and in returning had to push our way through fields of icebergs some of which were quite large. In doing this care had to be taken, so that no injury would be done to the vessel. For about two hours we remained in front of this stupendous wall of ice, the vessel being pushed as closely to it as it could be in safety; and we had an excellent opportunity, the day being fine and the sun shining brightly, to give it a thorough examination. It is a very large glacier and a very fine one, probably finer, if anything, for its size than the Muir Glacier, but the immensity of the latter makes it more impressive. Though the Inlet was full of ice, still, while we were there, there were comparatively few broke off, not nearly so many as we saw fall from the Muir Glacier. After leaving Taku Glacier we steamed for Junean, which we reached about the middle of the afternoon and remained until 9 p.m. The time was occupied in receiving and discharging freight.
Saturday, July 20, 1895 The sail today was very pleasant, the water still. We passed the Devil’s Thumb, a cone-like peak; passed through Wrangle Narrows at 4 o’clock.
Sunday, July 21, 1895 This morning a Mr. Lane and Mr. Graham, two of the passengers, spoke to Brother Jos. F. Smith and myself about holding meeting. He said the passengers would like one of us to address them, and it was arranged that I should speak. The meeting was held in the cabin; those that could not get in stood outside and listened through the cabin windows. I read the 2nd chap. of Acts and spoke on the first principles of the Gospel. Strict attention was paid by all. In the afternoon we passed through Grenville Narrows. The water here is very narrow, almost like a canal. The scenery is very beautiful. The gentleman who held meeting last Sunday was apparently not satisfied to let the day pass without saying something. I think he was disappointed in not being invited to hold meeting before noon, so he held an evening meeting and discoursed on the necessity of being born again. Taken altogether it was a very weak effort.
We entered Gardner’s
Island Inlet early in the evening, a place which is not visited by tourist vessels, the scenery of which, however, is very fine. Capt. Roberts told me at Victoria that he would visit all the places usually visited by tourist steamers, and in addition spend a day up Gardner’s Inlet, as he desired to make our voyage as interesting as possible.
Monday, July 22, 1895 We were awakened this morning about 3 o’clock (my girls were out some time before) as we reached a point where the scenery was very attractive and beautiful. By 4:30 we reached the head of the Inlet, and it was quite light. The vessel was drawn up at the bottom of a very fine waterfall, which came tumbling down a precipice four hundred feet in height. I never saw anything of the kind that gave a finer and more impressive view than this waterfall. The effect upon us in looking at it was greater through Capt. Roberts putting the vessel close up to where it fell into the water. An amphitheatre of mountains formed the head of the Inlet, their tops covered with snow, and in several places remains of glaciers were to be seen. The mountains in this Inlet exhibit the marks of more recent glacial action, I think, than any we have seen. After remaining at the foot of the waterfall until everyone was satisfied, the steamer turned around and we sailed back. On our way down the Captain ran the vessel close up to the base of a precipitous cliff or mountain which almost overhung the vessel and which towered above the water probably about 2000 feet, and then retreated a little, and probably towered up as far again to a peak covered with snow. It was a remarkable sight to see a vessel lying alongside of a granite mountain which rose so abruptly out of the water; but Capt. Roberts informed us that the water where we were resting was about 247 fathoms or 1500 feet deep. While we were at this point the name of the vessel, the date, and the Captain’s name were painted on the rock. We passed through some very fine pieces of scenery from this point down to the mouth of the Inlet, where we entered upon the regular tourist steamer track.
Tuesday, July 23, 1895 This morning I dictated a letter to be given to the President of the Alaska Steamship Co., of which the following is a copy:
“Walter Oakes, Esq.,
President of the Alaska Steamship Co.,
Having just completed a voyage to and from Alaska on your steamship Willapa, of which Captain Geo. Roberts is the Commander, we esteem it a pleasure, in justice to Mr. C. E. Peabody your General Manager, and to Captain Roberts, to communicate to you, as the representative of the Alaska Steamship Company, the impressions which have been made upon us and our entire Salt Lake party, numbering sixteen, by the treatment we have received from the time we embarked on the Willapa until we have returned to Tacoma. We ourselves, as well as some others of our party, have traveled considerably by land and by sea; but we can truthfully say that upon no trip that we have ever taken have we received treatment that has given us greater satisfaction and pleasure than we have received at the hands of Capt. Roberts and those under his command.
Mr. Peabody gave us assurances that he would do all in his power to make the trip one of comfort and enjoyment to us. These assurances have been fully carried out. The table has been abundantly supplied with the best the markets could furnish, and it has been excellently cooked, and served with civility and a desire to please that has won our admiration; in fact, everything has been done by all who have waited upon us to make us contented and happy. We have been in a position to appreciate this, because, as we were the last to embark, we had to take our meals at the third table.
Knowing the size of the Willapa, and the moderate sum charged for our passages, we could not look for as many conveniences as we might have had if the vessel had been more roomy; but the kindness of the Captain, his evident determination to make the voyage a delightful one to us, and the pains that were taken on every hand to make us comfortable removed every feeling of inconvenience from us.
We shall probably never forget the grandeur of the scenery of Gardner’s Inlet and the patience which Capt. Roberts exhibited in his efforts to have us see every point of interest and to get the full benefit of the sail up and down the Inlet. We understand that this departure from the usually traveled route of tourist steamers was made expressly for our benefit and that we might see all the beautiful and attractive scenery possible. We appreciate the spirit in which this was done, and it, with the other attentions we have received, has caused us to esteem Capt. Roberts very highly and to desire for our friends who may wish to make this trip the good fortune to have him for commander of the vessel in which they sail.
In conclusion, we wish to say that the treatment we have received aboard your vessel, which has made this voyage one of the pleasantest of our lives, will always prompt us to say to our friends that they will be sure to have a delightful time going to and from Alaska if they will only sail by your line.
Geo. Q. Cannon
Jos. F. Smith”
Mr. Ross, and some others of the passengers have been formulating a document to present to the Captain as a testimonial. It has been in process of incubation for several days, but we have not been consulted about it. It was brought to us today with the request that we should sign it. Upon reading it, we found it a stiff, badly worded paper, and one which I would not like to attach my name to, for that reason alone; but we intended to draw up our own paper, and I so informed the gentleman who sent us this paper to sign. The first name on the list was the preacher’s, Mr. Sterling; then followed those of his party. I felt that if they had wished our signatures, it would only have been courteous to have said something to us about it, and not prepared and signed it, and then submitted it to us for our signatures. President Woodruff is a venerable man, and respect for age, not to mention gentlemanly courtesy, should have prompted the request for him to sign first, instead of the very young man whose name heads the list of the signers. I did not think it proper for us to be a tail to their kites. We subscribed, however, half a dollar apiece towards purchasing Capt. Roberts an album and a set of the views which some of the passengers obtained with their Kodaks. We passed through Queen Charlotte Sound this morning before we arose, and tossed about considerably. Before breakfast, however, we got into smooth water, and about five o’clock in the afternoon we passed through Seymour Narrows. Mrs. Lane, one of the passengers, broke the monotony today by issuing cards of invitation to cabin passengers to attend a reception at her state room between four and five o’clock. The ladies brushed up for the occasion and we attended two by two and viewed the curios and views which she had collected. We left our cards, and for refreshments we had a piece of chewing gum presented to each of us.
Wednesday, July 24, 1895. We reached Nanimo about 2 o’clock this morning and stopped to take on some coal. We left there about 6. A strong westerly wind was blowing as we passed through Harro Straits and made quite a choppy sea. From these straits, instead of turning to the right to go to Victoria, we sailed across the Straits of Tuca to go to Port Townsend. A westerly wind blew the water in from the Straits and the sea was somewhat rough. I was not seasick, but I took the precaution to lie in my berth for an hour or two, for fear I might be seasick. We only remained in Port Townsend an hour, and then pushed on for Seattle, which we reached a little before 7. The vessel remained here about 3 hours. The Captain had an extra good dinner prepared for us Salt Lake people, of which, however, I did not partake, as I hurried off with Mr. Kendall, who is a good judge of furs, to the store of Mr. R. Petkovits. I examined his furs and found some to suit me.
Today being the anniversary of the arrival of the pioneers in Salt Lake Valley, it prompted many reflections.
Thursday, July 25, 1895 Eight years ago today President John Taylor departed this life. What a stirring life I have led since then.
We reached Tacoma about midnight, and this morning I was kept very busy arranging for our transportation, for the stocking of the car with provisions, and in making preparations for our return homeward. Mr. Bancroft’s car, that brought us out to Portland, did not come out for us; but it had been arranged for us to have the use of Mr. McNeil’s car, a more commodious one than the other. Mr. McNeil is the Receiver of the Oregon Railway and Navigation Co. We had to secure transportation from the Northern Pacific from Tacoma to Portland. Mr. G. E. Dickinson, the Supt., was away, but I found in Mr. Pearl, who had charge of the office, a very friendly and accommodating official. He did everything he could for me in making necessary preparations, and even went so far, though he had only an hour and a half to do it in, to secure for us a list of provisions which the cook in charge of the car had made out for the journey. He saw the difficulty we were in for want of these provisions and volunteered to get them for us.
We left Tacoma at 2 o’clock and reached Portland at 8:30. We feared we would not make connection with the outgoing train to Salt Lake, as the regular Northern Pacific train was four hours late; but a special train was made up for us and we reached Portland in time for the connection.
Mr. Hurlburt and other officials were very accommodating in sorting our baggage and getting it on board the car.
Friday, July 26, 1895 We suffered from heat and dust last night and today, and President Woodruff slept but little and felt badly. Presidents Woodruff and Smith and Brother Beebe and myself, with our wives, slept in the private car. We had double beds and were very comfortable, though President Smith and wife had to climb into their bed, which was above the one myself and wife occupied. We had a colored cook with us by the name of Wm. Washington, and he was master of his business, for the food was served in the choicest manner. There was another porter in the car, and as there were sixteen to feed, the cook and the porter were kept busy. The married folks ate at the first table and the remainder at the second.
Saturday, July 27, 1895 Of all the dusty rides that I have had in my railroad experience I think this beats all. The cook and porter say they never saw such dust. This, with the heat, made the journey very unpleasant. We were all glad to reach Salt Lake City at 9:30.
Brother Wilcken and my sons Willard, Preston and Carl met us with vehicles for ourselves and baggage. Mary Alice also came up for Emily. I found my family all in good health, excepting my wife Sarah Jane, whose condition shocked me greatly. During the night of last Sunday she was awakened by a great gush of blood from her mouth and nostrils. Before she could awaken anybody or get a light, a large Turkish towel, which she had near her bed, was thoroughly soaked with blood. Our son Joseph applied ice and did everything in his power for the relief of his mother; and the flow was stopped, but not before a large quantity had flowed. Between that and Tuesday morning she had six more hemorrhages, and from the description her loss of blood must have been enormous. Sister Van Schoonhoven was sent for and she applied ice very freely and used other remedies, and this with the repeated administration of the Elders brought relief. She said that she feared at one time that we would not reach home even in time for her funeral, and of course was delighted to see Rosannah and myself. I administered to her, and felt well in doing so. Afterwards Brother F. D. Richards came down to see me, and I requested him to administer. I anointed with oil and he was mouth in administration.
I spent some time in the office yesterday afternoon, getting information concerning the situation of affairs.
Sunday, July 28, 1895.
Called upon President Woodruff this morning and found him feeling much better, though he had not slept very well.
In the afternoon I attended meeting in the Tabernacle. President Jos. F. Smith and Brother Heber J. Grant were on the stand. I addressed the congregation for over an hour. I felt quite well and enjoyed my own remarks.
Monday, July 29, 1895
Brother F. D. Richards had seen me on Saturday about appointing a meeting for the First Presidency and himself and some Democratic brethren to meet at the office at which he desired my brother Angus to be present as President of the Stake. Presidents Woodruff, Smith and myself were averse to having a meeting with these brethren today, and therefore postponed it until tomorrow, which was somewhat contrary to the wishes of these brethren, as they had appointments which they desired to fill, but we felt that having been away for some weeks and not being informed as to the condition of affairs, we would like to have all the Apostles present at this meeting that we could get.
I attended a Sugar Co. meeting, and also a meeting with Brothers Clayton and Jack.
Tuesday, July 30, 1895
According to appointment, the following brethren met with us at the office: President Lorenzo Snow, F. D. Richards, Brigham Young, F. M. Lyman, Heber J. Grant and Abraham H. Cannon. The brethren who had desired to see us were John T. Caine, S. R. Thurman, Wm. H. King and F. S. Richards; C. W. Penrose and Jos. E. Taylor were also with them, all being Democrats, to bring the matter before us as the First Presidency which they desired to have investigated; but the last two were also there as counselors to my brother Angus. Stress was laid on the necessity of having Angus present, as it was his action that these brethren complained of. It appears that the three sisters who preside over the Relief Societies in the Territory, Zina D. Young, Bathsheba W. Smith and Jane S. Richards had come out and openly announced themselves as Democrats, had been elected as delegates to the Convention, had met with the Convention, had made speeches, or some of them had, and had been appointed to go to different places to make speeches. Sister M. Isabella Horne, who is the President of the Relief Society of Salt Lake Stake, had also taken the same course. My brother Angus, claiming jurisdiction over Sister Horne, she being an officer in his Stake, had sent word to her through Sister Zina Young, that she must stop her open action in politics, as it was contrary to counsel for presiding officers to appear actively in politics. He had also counseled Sister Young in the same way, though he did not claim authority over her, she being in the nature of a general officer. Sister Horne had not regarded his counsel. He then got word to her that she must either stop her course in politics or resign her office of President of the Relief Society in the Salt Lake Stake of Zion. At a ward meeting in the Eleventh Ward he had also spoken publicly in a very pointed manner on this subject. He there announced that no presiding officer, male or female, nor the Bishops or their counselors, should actively engage in politics. It is with these utterances--those to the sisters and those at this meeting--that these Democratic brethren, including his two counselors, found fault, and it was for the purpose of bringing this fully to our attention that they had desired this meeting.
Brother John T. Caine, upon President Woodruff’s invitation, opened the business by stating what had occurred without mentioning Angus’ name. He was followed by Brother Wm. H. King, Brother Thurman, Brother F. S. Richards, and Brothers Penrose and Taylor, all of whom disapproved of Angus’ counsel and course and represented the serious consequences which would follow if these sisters were interfered with. It would be immediately set down to Church influence. Brother F. S. Richards particularly dwelt on this and on the danger we were in from this cause, it being as our enemies would say an attempt to unite church and state. He also dwelt upon the probability of reviving prosecutions if these officers should become displeased. His remarks, while probably not intended to intimidate us, sounded that way; at least, they appeared so to me, and I judged by the remarks of Brother F M. Lyman and my son Abraham that they must have had a sound of that kind to them, for both spoke in a somewhat contemptuous tone of the threats of our enemies. A number of questions were asked of the brethren in order to give us a clear conception of the situation. Then Angus was invited to speak. If I could have told him my feelings before he spoke I would have suggested that he should say nothing more than to acknowledge the truth of all that had been said, for there seemed to be no question as to what had occurred; but the other brethren had occupied about two hours and I suppose he felt that he should make some reply. I was not sorry afterwards that he did so, for his explanations furnished light to my mind as to his motives and the course which he had pursued himself. It appeared also that he had talked with Brother Brigham Young concerning Sister Horne, and that Brigham had sustained Angus in the counsel he had given to her. Brothers John Henry Smith and F. M. Lyman had also counseled the other sisters not to take any steps in politics until the First Presidency should return; but disregarding this counsel they had applied to Brother F. D. Richards for counsel as to what they should do and he (probably not aware of what the other brethren had counseled) had said to them to go ahead and he would stand between them and all consequences.
President Woodruff called upon the Twelve to give their views, and they all spoke in turn, beginning with Brother Lorenzo Snow and ending with Abraham H. Cannon. Then Brother Jos. F. Smith followed, and I followed him. While the brethren spoke, some on certain points particularly and some on other points, the concensus of expression was in favor of the counsel which Angus had given, and that these sisters should have taken no active part until they had learned from the First Presidency how far they could go consistently with the obligations of their offices in the church. I spoke at greater length than any of the other brethren and made explanations of our reasons as a First Presidency for taking the course we had in this matter. The Lord was with me and I plainly showed that it was for our safety as a people that we should not allow our sisters to be swept away into one party by the influence of women who held authority among the sisters. It had been claimed that the counsel that had been given was an interference with their rights as citizens. Not so, I said, for we do not say what politics they shall adopt or how they shall vote; but the church has the right to <say to> its officers that they shall not engage in active politics and shall not use the influence which the Church gives them to lead others to join their party. I spoke with a great deal of spirit and said many things which I will not attempt to repeat here, but of which notes were taken in the office journal. My remarks and explanations were well received by the brethren present. President Woodruff followed and closed. I was greatly pleased by his remarks, as all were. He has felt exceedingly well today, and has endured the fatigue of this six hours’ session admirably.
Wednesday, July 31, 1895
It was decided last evening after our meeting that it would be well to have a meeting of the sisters whose names were mentioned yesterday, for the First Presidency to give them their views. At 10 o’clock Sisters Zina D. Young, Bathsheba W. Smith and Jane S. Richards, with the latter’s husband, Brother Franklin D. Richards, and her daughter-in-law Emily S. Richards, came to the office. Brother John Henry Smith dropped in also. President Woodruff stated that as he was not feeling very well he wished his counselors to attend to the business of this meeting. President Smith made some opening remarks of a plain and pointed character, expressing his views and feelings concerning the position which the sisters had taken. I followed and asked a number of questions. In the beginning of the meeting the sisters were disposed to treat the matter very lightly and to defend their course as being proper. However, before we got through they felt pretty humble and they saw they had blundered. In my remarks I was very plain and searching, and they were melted to tears. They plead the innocence of their motives, in reply to which I said we did not question their integrity. We looked upon them as the leading women in Zion, wise women, and it was this that made the case so serious to us. “If you have not wisdom,” I said; “if you cannot be trusted, in what direction shall we turn, and to whom shall we look among the women of the Church? You ought to have kept yourselves aloof from politics, so that we, the First Presidency, could meet with you and communicate freely with you as to the proper policy to be pursued in counseling the sisters; but now you have become partisans, and we cannot talk to you freely, neither can those sisters who differ with you politically.” I explained the situation to them and why we had taken the course that we had in political matters, and impressed them with the gravity of the situation and the responsibility which rested upon them and us. I said, “The authority which you have among the sisters the First Presidency has given you. Politicians seek your aid because of this authority; but you have no right to use these positions for any other purpose than that for which they were given to you, and especially you ought not to use them for purposes in any manner disapproved of by the First Presidency. If you did this we would have the right to call for your resignations.” There was considerable plain talking, some of it perhaps severe, but it needed it to give these sisters a realizing sense of their situation. We assured them, however, that it was our love for them and our confidence in them that made us talk so freely as we did, as we knew they loved the work of God and would do nothing knowingly to injure it. Sister Bathsheba W. Smith said that it would have been much better for them to have taken the counsel which Brothers John Henry Smith and F. M. Lyman had given them. To this President Jos. F. Smith and myself could add nothing, as it was a reflection on Brother F. D. Richards’ conduct and he is our senior in the Apostleship. The sisters were all very humble and I trust that the meeting will do good. Sister Horne, who had the most to say about politics and whose expressions in meeting concerning the Prophet Joseph being a Democrat and that she could prove it were most to be found fault with displayed a woeful ignorance of politics and the proper application of the political principles which the Prophet advocated.
After this meeting my son Abraham brought up a mass of correspondence, principally from Mr. Meyer of St. Louis, concerning our railroad enterprises in the south. He also read several letters from my son Frank upon the same subject. We advised Abraham to go ahead on the line suggested by Mr. Meyer and push the business as fast as possible.