The Church Historian's Press

September 1863

1 September 1863 • Tuesday

Tuesday, Sept. 1st/63 Arose before 4 A.M. for the purpose of embarking on a steamer which sailed at 5 o’clock for Trollhätten where there are fa very fine and famous waterfalls. The scenery upon first leaving Gottenborg was <is> not very attractive, being the land and hills on both sides being rather sterile; but it improves as we ascended ascend the About river. About 10 miles up we pass on our left a ruined castle (Bohus Castle) which was built <in 1308> by King Hako V of Norway and was long considered the strongest fortress in that country or Sweden. Near this fortress is an old town by the name of Kongelf, formerly a place of much importance and the residence of the Kings of Norway. It is memorable in Scandinavian history from the frequent Congresses of sovereigns held here from which it was called Kungshäll. It is now a very small place of about 800 inhabitants and belongs to Sweden. The A branch of the river Göta passes this town to the sea. The land is low but seemingly rich and the hills rise very abruptly. The banks of the river are covered with enormous beds of rushes.

We had to pass through some locks at Lilla Edet and while the steamer was passing through we took the opportunity of viewing the falls here which are very fine. The scenery at this part <of the river> and up to Trollhätten is very fine. We soon reached the locks made for vessels to pass by the Falls of Trollhätten – 15 in number. and There is a double line of locks, those originally constructed having been found too small for the steamers and increased traffic on the line. These and the canal are a most stupendous work and probably is not equalled by any work of the kind in the world. They are nearly altogether cut out of the solid rock and the engineering difficulties to be overcome have been of the most serious character. The difference of level between the highest part of the canal at Trollhätten and the point where it joins the river below the falls, is about 120 feet. We passed by the locks and then proceeded to the falls. The word cataracts would apply to them more properly than falls; but they are cataracts of the most magnificent character. The first view we had of them was very striking. They are seven in number and altogether 112 feet in height. The highest is 44 feet. One of the great beauties here is the vast body of water always in the river, it being the only outlet for the great body of water in the Lake Wenern — the third largest lake in Europe, being only next to Ladoga and Onega. We ascended the tower of a new church and had a splendid view of the Falls and all the surrounding country. The scenery was rather wild, the spaces that were cleared and cultivated exhibiting many patches of bare rocks and the rest of the country being covered with pine trees. A closer view of the falls increased the sense of sublimity. and <Reflecting> man cannot contemplate the vast power of the water as it rushes over the precipitous rocks in terrific grandeur without being impressed with a sense of his own impotentcy. A number of saw-mills are built in convenient spots to use the water power[,] and there is a tolerably-sized town at the Falls. The cataracts and rapids are upwards of an English mile in length. We went to the inn and partook of some “saft”— the juice of fruit obtained by pressing and then boiled with sugar until it is almost as thick as syrup, very commonly used in Scandinavia – and mixed with water. A steamer had just gone down the Canal, so we started to overtake it before it passed through the locks. We dined onboard the “Birger Jarl” and reached Gottenborg about 8 o’clock P.M. Found Bro. Winberg at the house, he having just returned <arrived> from Stockholm.

2–3 September 1863 • Wednesday to Thursday

Wednesday, Sept. 2/63. Writing journal and conversing with the brethren. We dined at Hotel Götha Källare and then walked in some gardens close by. In evening held meeting[.] Bro. Smith and I spoke. Bro’s Söderborg and Winberg interpreted The room my remarks. The room was very well filled. We sat up until 12 midnight and then Bro’s. Winberg and Söderborg carried our trunk down to the Wharf and we embarked at a little before 2. A.M. on the morning of

Thursday, 3rd, on the Steamer “Kron Princesse Louise” for Christiana, Norway. In taking leave of Sweden I cannot but express my pleasure at the kindness and attention which we have experienced from the Elders and Saints. They have done all in their power to make us comfortable and to convince us that they appreciated our society and teachings. The visit has been one of unalloyed pleasure to me. May the Lord bless them for their kindness and good feelings.

Brother Jesse N. Smith had difficulty in obtaining a berth for me; he slept in the cabin; the boat was very crowded. The motion was so violent that I did not dare to get up until between 12 and 1 o’clock when we stopped at Frederiksvaern to land passengers and goods. We had some rough water after this before we entered Christiana Fjord; but I endured it very well, though I felt much relieved when we entered smooth water. We had <had> no breakfast & were therefore prepared for dinner which consisted of a remarkable number of courses, the first being soup, the second melon, third pastry and several other kickshaws of a trifling character, finishing up with meat and potatoes and ice cream strongly flavored with coffee. The supper was much more substantial and satisfactory, being served up more like our American meals of the same kind. The scenery all <this> afternoon was in passing up the fjord is of a very fine character. Hills clad <with> pine come down to <the> water’s edge and extend as far back as the eye can reach. Villages are built in places that seem too rocky to produce anything but pine. Sailing up this fjord reminded me of sailing up the Rhine. Cha Imagine the pine-clad hills to be vine-clad and the lofty peaks which reared themselves ever <&> anon proudly skyward to be the ruins of some castle of the middle ages and the resemblance would be most striking. We landed at Christiana at about 9 P.M. and were met by Bro. J. P. R. Johnson, President of the Conference (and who left home when we did for Europe) on the wharf. There were some hundreds of Saints waiting there also to welcome us and we received a complete ovation <from them>. having <We had> to pass through a lane in the crowd who <and were> saluted us <by them> on both sides, as we passed until we reached a carriage which was prepared for us, and which <soon> whirled us off at a very rapid speed to Bro. Johnson’s. They drive here at a very rapid, break-neck pace. Their breed of horses rather of the pony or ponies rather, are very hardy and strong and they drive them Jehu-like. A number of the Elders followed us up in another vehicle. Bro. Johnson had prepared supper but we could not eat. We and the Elders ate some cake and drank some wine he had prepared. They were all very glad to see us.

4 September 1863 • Friday

Friday, Sept. 4th/63. After breakfast Bro. Peter Christiansen obtained <procured> a carriage <by Bro. Johnson’s direction> and took us out in the city and in the suburbs. We visited the isthmus called Ladegaardsöen which stretches out into the fjord and affords some fine views. It had been <was> purchased by the late King and given to the inhabitants for a public promenade. The grounds are pleasantly laid out and there is a small but beautifully situated building called “Oscar’s Hall” here which belongs to the King. The views from the front of this building were most magnificent and I thought I had never <seen> them surpassed, if indeed equalled. Mountains and valleys, nature adorned and in all her native wildness, Christiana at the end of the bay, in the midst of the country, spreading in small divergent masses in every direction, till it is at last lost in the distance among villages, farm houses and country houses, and the magnificent fjord <which had not> studded with beautiful little islands and dotted with sails fjord, which lay at our feet like a mirror without a ripple to disturb its surface, studded with islands beautiful little islands and dotted with sails, all lay spread out before us and afforded a scene of beauty seldom witnessed. The villas in the suburbs are very pretty. They are built principally of logs, hewn and put up in excellent style, some buildings having as many as three storeys, and then weather-boarded. We dined at Bro. Christiansen’s the meal being prepared in fine style. A number of the Elders also ate with us. We administered to a Brother Paulsen who was sick here. In the afternoon visited the Palace in company with Elders J. N. Smith, Johnson, Mons Petersen, President of the Branch, Englebrecht Olsen, a travelling Elder, and Hans Hansen, H. A. Hansen, Ole Berg, Eduard Larsen, Jens Petersen, Christopher Jensen, and F. Grundtvig also travelling Elders and one or Peter Christiansen with whom we had dined. The building is finely situated; but meagerly fitted up and furnished. Took supper at Bro. Christiansen’s. After supper Bro. Johnson took Bro. Smith and myself to a Concert at the Theatre where we heard Fröken Holmsen sing <in Italian> an air from the Prophet and another by Merryweather. Herr Svendsen played also on a silver flute in a manner to surpass anything of the kind I ever heard. His variations were very surprising and his playing of two tunes at once on the instrument brought down repeated rounds of applause. He is a young man, not, I think, exceeding thirty. He is styled musician to the King. There was a vaudeville performed <also> in which there was considerable singing. I wrote to the Rev. Mr. Morse, Boston, Mass., and to Bro Bentley, L’pool, to-day.

5 September 1863 • Saturday

Saturday, Sept. 5th/63 To-day Conference was convened at the Hall usually occupied by the Saints. Meetings were held in the forenoon and afternoon. Bro. J The brethren were only there in the forenoon when Bro. Johnson and Elders Olsen, Berg, Larsen and the two Hansens and Grundtvig made reports of the condition and progress of the Work in this Conference; Bro. Jesse N. Smith also spoke a short time. We dined at Bro. Peter Christiansen’s (this brother is no relation of the other of the same name before mentioned). This brother is a sweep by profession trade.

In the afternoon I spok I spoke and Bro’s Johnson & Smith interpreted and made some remarks themselves. Had a bath after meeting and ate supper at Bro. Christiansen’s and spent the evening there.

6 September 1863 • Sunday

Sunday, Sept. 6th/63. We fasted to-day. This morning the authorities were presented to the Conference after which I spoke with much freedom and Bro’s. Johnson & Smith again interpreted. We then had intermission of a few minutes to give the people an opportunity to move around, as the room was crowded to overflowing the landing <&stairway> was were full making it very hot. Bro. Smith then spoke and I followed in some exhortations to improvement in everything that would make us a more useful and wise people that we might be better able to build up Zion; but especially directing their attention to the acquirement of the English language. The Conference has been an excellent one and we have all enjoyed it extremely well. To-day has been a glorious time and I trust its teachings and influences will long be remembered and treasured up. My heart warms towards this people. They are a kind-hearted, simple-minded and noble race, and I have felt to prophecy and promise them good. They treated us as though we were angels, not being able, seemingly, to do enough for us, in their estimation. They are a very good-looking people and compare very favorably with the Danes. They The Gospel has been carried as high as the 69 or <70> degree of latitude and there is a branch of the Church up there in 66 deg. of latitude. As soon as the Conference adjourned the Saints started for the isthmus, which we visited on Friday last, to spend the afternoon in the grounds. It was spent in a manner to suit continental notions of the Sabbath, (where the people do not hold their Sunday in any such reverence as to prevent their going to the Theatre and other amusements on that day as they would any other day,) and in a manner that I think would have shocked straight-laced English or American people. They frolicked generally and extensively, but and I may say happily. Rain came on towards evening, and we all separated for home.

7 September 1863 • Monday

Monday, Sept. 7th/63. We took dinner <& supper> at Brother Eckströms in company with many more Elders. Wrote a letter to Brother Bentley. Spent the evening with the Saints in their hall where they had a Concert. I spoke for a short time to them which Bro Smith interpreted. I received several letters this morning. One from my wife dated 5th of Augt at Wood River and from Bro’s. Bigler & Peacock. They were all well and Georgiana and George H. were both well; the latter growing so large that he made his mother’s arms ache to carry him. Elizabeth was getting very thin, the heat & the care and fatigue wearing upon her. Capt. Nebeker had charge of the company and he hoped to be able to reach the Valley by the 25th of September. The Saints were somewhat exposed for want of suitable outfit and many were sick.

8 September 1863 • Tuesday

Tuesday, Sept. 8/63 A very stormy day. Writing Journal. Ate dinner at Bro. Ole Olsen and then went to the Hall where the Saints had a pic-nic party for the Missionaries. Spent the evening there. There were various amusements.

9 September 1863 • Wednesday

Wednesday, 9th. Writing Journal. Visited Bro. Christian Andersen’s at Aker, a short distance from Christiana. He is presiding Elder of the Branch there, which consists of about 40 Members. They treated us very kindly. We returned and had tickets furnished us to visit the Theatre. The piece was styled “Master & Pupil” and was well performed.

10 September 1863 • Thursday

Thursday, Sept. 10/63. Rose at 2. A. M. this morning and started at 3 o’clock on a visit to a place called Ringeriget about 28 <English> miles distant. The finest views are to be obtained here of any <place> in the South of Norway. The weather has been very bad for some days, and it was cloudy this morning; but though we had a slight sprinkling of rain <once in the morning & in the evening> on the whole we had a very fine day and obtained a splendid view. Bro. Peter Christiansen furnished us with a carriage and span of horses and a driver belonging to the Church named Anders Paulsen. He took the nearest but worst road going, and we had to walk considerably, there were so many hills. We reached a house where we found a stable and1 some feed for our horses and some milk to drink with the provisions we had brought for ourselves. From this house we had to take a mountainous road, unfit for anything but sure-footed horses and men to travel, for about a mile and a half through the timber to the edge of the mountain from which we obtained the view for which we had started. The mountain is precipitous and rises abruptly from the plain to the height of 1500 to 2000 feet, and we were not aware that we were approaching its verge until the whole view burst upon us. We shouted involuntarily when we saw the prospect open up before us. It was sublime. Never in my life <before> did I see such a view — so commanding and so grand. A magnificent and almost circular valley surrounded by a chain of mountains, with <and> several beautiful lakes interspersed with islands of various sizes and shapes, some highly cultivated and containing a few families, others covered with timber and seemingly uninhabited, were spread out before us, presenting a panorama of rare beauty and the sight of which amply repaid us for the trouble we had been at in coming there. The lakes were very smooth, and, though there were many clouds, our view was very extensive and the valley lay sleeping as it were in quiet loveliness at <our feet.> Though <one of> the lakes did not seem to be far from the foot of the mountain on <the top of> which we stood, so high were we above it that a skiff moving on its surface appeared more like a fowl than an object of such a size and I looked at it for some minutes before I could be satisfied that it was a skiff. The view from the point is considered fully equal to the finest in Switzerland those from Mont Blanc only excepted. It was difficult for us to tear ourselves away from this spot — it was such a pleasure to gaze upon the lovely scene before us. But as we had to return to Christiana the same evening we could not tarry very long. We started on our return about 1 o’clock P.M. and took a different and much better route back. From the house where we stopped we descended a kanyon, with exceedingly precipitous sides to the level of the plain below. The road was very steep, fully as steep as the big mountain near the Valley at-home and much longer in the descent. The ride home was most beautiful the greater part of the way, the road being cut out of the side of the mountain at <an> immense expenditure of time and means. The lake was on our right and we had some beaut ravishing views of scenery as we returned. In some places the view from the edge of the road to the Valley below was almost frightful, the cliff at the edge of the road being perpendicular for several hundred feet to the level below. It certainly appeared anything but a safe road for an unruly team or horse to be driven or rode upon. The only protection on the right hand side — that is, the side next the lake precipice — was a slight han railing consisting of iron posts with wooden rails. Our return to Christiana was much easier than our journey out from there, the road being so much better. We fed the horses and obtained a little refreshment for ourselves at a village about 9 miles from Christiana and arrived at the latter place at about 9½ P.M.

11 September 1863 • Friday

Friday, Sept. 11th, 1863. Very stormy to-day. An advertisement appeared in one of the <morning> papers, inserted by some person of whom we had no knowledge, informing the public that there was to be a Ball given this evening to the two Mission Prophets who were in the city at the Mormon [Mormon] Palace (the house of one of the brethren named Jacobsen was called thus derisively and known as such among the people) to the two Mormon Prophets who were in the City and calling upon the inhabitants to illuminate their houses in honor of the event. We took dinner with a number of the Elders at Bro. Ole Hansen’s. Afterwards had a bath and repaired to Bro. Jacobsen’s for supper. We were the objects of considerable attention on the part of the neighbors and would probably have attracted more notice had the evening not been so stormy. From here we went to the Hall in Young Gade or Young Street and met with the Saints. We all spoke <Bro. Smith Johnson & myself> Bro. Smith interpreting my remarks. The Saints all came forward and bade us a warm farewell and wished us a pleasant journey. They evinced considerable feeling and they all seemed very eager to shake us by the hands with us. I felt like leaving old acquaintances so much had I become attached to the brethren and Saints during the short time we had been there. I never in my experience received a more kind or warmer reception than we have had from the Elders and Saints in Norway. Bro. Johnson has spared no pains to make do everything for us that would in the least degree contribute to our happiness or comfort, and he says the Saints have desired that he should do so. If anything, they have been too kind, and my stomach, which is a weak one, and rebels against any over-taxation or over-burdening, has had considerable occasion to remonstrate in consequence of the many good meals which have been provided for us and which they the <Saints> would have felt hurt if we had refused to eat. I had to employ some strategy to avoid imposing on my stomach and at the same time satisfy our hospitable entertainers that I enjoyed their food. My stomach is the only part of my system that has given me any trouble through weakness. I have always had to humor it by being very careful in my diet; and if I should eat a hearty meal, to be free from pain, I must allow my stomach plenty of time for <to perform the duty of> digestion before I again take food into it. Eating my meals too close together seems to <be> unsuited to my nature. The weather since we have been up here has been rather stormy, and they have not permitted us to go anywhere in the rain but have always sent a conveyance for us — a care though agreeable enough to one’s natural feelings, I almost thought excessive.

12–13 September 1863 • Saturday to Sunday

Saturday, Sept. 12/63. We arose at 4 o’clock this morning and we (Bro’s. Smith, Johnson and myself) embarked on the “Kron Princess Louise” at 6 A.M. for Copenhagen. Bro. Johnson was with us for the purpose of attending the General Conference of the Elders to be held in Copenhagen on the 18th. A number of the brethren were at the Wharf to bid us adieu. I was very sick in the evening after emerging from the fjord into the more open water and I had to take my berth as did the other brethren likewise. I vomited pretty heavily. Bro. Johnson was also sick; but Brother Smith quite <sick> escaped without vomiting. We called at Gottenburg about 1 o’clock on Sunday morning, the 13th and passed Elsinore between one and two o’clock p.m. after which I was able to get up and eat a little dinner. We reached Copenhagen in the midst of a very heavy storm of rain at 4 o’clock p.m. and found Bro’s. John Smith[,] Winberg and S. L. Sprague here, the latter was not quite well of the disease which he had been troubled with, but was nearly so. Several of the Saints dropped in during the evening.

14 September 1863 • Monday

Monday, Sept. 14th/63. Bro. Jesse N. Smith and myself went out and had our portraits taken. Afterwards, in consequence of the chimney smoking, took dinner at a restaurant with the brethren. In the evening Bro. J P R Johnson furnished us with tickets for the “King’s Theatre.” The piece was an Opera, the Auber’s Massaniello, translated into Danish. I enjoyed it exceedingly; the singing was very good. Herr Nyrop was <took> the part of the hero of the piece and the principal female part was taken by M [blank] The hero’s dumb sister was admirably taken by M [blank]. The hero’s dumb sister Fenella was admirably taken by [blank]

This is the first opera I have witnessed.

15 September 1863 • Tuesday

Tuesday, 15th, ′63. I recd a letter from Bro. Bentley informing me that Bro. Benjamin Stringham was down with the small-pox and was very bad. I proposed to the Elders, Bro’s. Jesse N. & John Smith[,] S. L. Sprague, Winberg, J. P. R Johnson and a Danish Elder named Börglum that we should fast and pray in behalf of Bro. Stringham, for I felt much impressed to do so. We had a precious time together. I felt very much softened and could not refrain from tears and <part of the time> could scarcely control my feelings sufficiently to speak. I was seized with the cholic in the afternoon and suffered from it very much all the evening.

16 September 1863 • Wednesday

Wednesday, Sept. 16, 1863. The Elders commenced to drop in to the Conference to be held on Friday. The pain in my bowels still continues very bad. Thinking I might walk it off I went with a number of the brethren to view the New Hospital, a very fine building which has just been completed. From there we went to the Ethnological Museum, and afterwards visited the King’s stables. We saw several of a very fine <rare> breed of white horses, which belong to His Majesty. In evening was taken by Bro. Smith to see a <play that is considered> very fine[,] viz.: Axel and Valborg. It is a tragedy and written by Adam Oelenschlager.

17 September 1863 • Thursday

Thursday, Sept. 17/63. The newly elected King of Greece, George the First, son of the Prince Christian, the Heir Apparent to the Danish crown, and brother to the Princess of Wales, was to take his departure to-day from Denmark on his journey to his new home. We repaired to the wharf to see the sight. We found the streets in the vicin through which he would pass, lined with people and the houses gaily decorated with flags of various nations. The gates leading to the wharf were only opened to carriages and <officers> in uniform and other public men. As we saw no probability of our being invited, and we were likely to have no very great opportunity of seeing much outside, I suggested to Bro. <Jesse N> Smith that we enter into the lane which was formed by the people and try what assurance would do as modest worth was not likely to be recognized. We linked arms and edged through the crowd until we entered the open space and then <space, then> marched up and thro’ the gate with as much confidence as though we were necessary to the ceremony. When we entered we <had to> elbowed elbow dignitaries tricked out in the most brilliant style of uniform with their breasts covered with decorations and others who were dressed in citizen’s clothes but who occupied some position in the Government or the “Corps Diplomatique”, to obtain the places we needed. But we had an excellent view of the whole ceremony. The young King, who is only about 18 years old, passed close by us, and we had a good opportunity of scanning him closely. He has a fine face and head and has a sweet, pleasing expression of countenance. He was dressed in plain naval uniform and a cap with gold lace around it. He deported himself with a quiet, simple dignity that I admired. He took off his cap and bowed repeatedly in acknowledgement of the cheers with which he was greeted by the crowds. He was accompanied by Count Sponneck who goes with him to his new home. The vessel on which he embarked was an iron-clad <steam> schooner the Esbaresnare. As soon as he embarked she her cables were slipped and she stood steamed off. When I saw him <on deck> bidding farewell to his fatherland and thought <fatherland, thought> of his youth and inexperience, and the trying scenes upon which he was now entering I was touched and indulged in the hope that his future might be as happy a one as the seeming innocence of his face would merit. Had a bath this morning. I took some pills of Bro. Sprague’s last night and they operated powerfully thro’ the night and causing me to feel very weak to-day.

18 September 1863 • Friday

Friday, Sept. 18/63. I felt unwell this morning from cold. At 10 A.M. the Elders convened in Conference. The names of those the <Elders> present were as follows: (Insert names &c here) {Bros. J. P. R. Johnson, Swenson, Holberg, Winberg, Neilsen, from Malmö, Neilsen from Norköpping, Jensen from Aalborg, Neilsen from Bornholm, Ohlsen from Fredericia, Högsted from Vensyssel & Flygare from Stockholm spoke and <there were many local officers there besides>.} We met in the small hall used by the Saints as a place of meeting. The day was occupied in hearing the Elders give an account of their labors, the condition of their fields, spiritually and financially and the prospects of for emigration next year. Bro’s. J. P R Johnson, Swenson, Holberg, Winberg, Neilsen from Malmö, Neilsen from Norköpping, Jensen from Aalborg, Neilsen from Bornholm, Ohlsen from Fredericia, Högsted from Vensyssel & Flygare from Stockholm spoke and Bro. <Jesse N.> Smith also. I spoke at some length <in the> morning and Bro’s. Winberg and Smith interpreted. We had an intermission of a little over an hour and held until about 5 P.M. I had received an invitation by letter from a Bro. Hager to dine with him and to bring Bro’s. Jesse N, & John Smith <and Winberg> with me, which I did; Brothers Edlefson and Jorgensen, the one President of the Conference and the other President of the Branch, and Bro. Carstenson were also there. The evening was spent very pleasantly in conversation.

19 September 1863 • Saturday

Saturday, Sept. 19/63. Met again to-day <at the same hour> in the same place with the Elders. Bro’s. Söderborg of Gottenborg, Jonasson of Sciva, Geertson of Aarhuus, Carstenson of Fyen, Hansen of Lolland and Edlefson of Copenhagen spoke and represented their Conferences. I find by the statements of the Elders that nearly every Conference in the Mission is embarrassed with debt some of them very badly. There seems to have been an opinion very prevalent that there is nothing in the least wrong in <the> contraction <of> debts by Presidents of Conferences and they have not hesitated about doing so. They have been in habit also of crediting their Conferences with all the old stock <of books and pamphlets> they have had on hand as though they were so much cash. This has opened a door for Elders who have been so disposed to buy up Stars &c from the Saints at a low figure and charge them as stock on hand at their original value. This stock, which represented Cash, was much of it really unsaleable and worthless and though the Conferences obtained <were> credited for <with> it they Church was truthfully properly were indebted to the Church for all they had on hand and the Church was <the amount> out of pocket. I spoke to them at some length on the subject of the indebtedness of the Conferences, pointed out the evils of such a position and counselled them to make a united effort and roll off the debts which burdened them and advised Bro. Jesse N. Smith to put a stop to the system of crediting the Conferences with the stock they have on hand; but to find out what was really of worth, give them credit for it and be done with either call it in, or have it so arranged that it would be done with as a credit. I told them that I wished them to reflect upon the matter until after dinner. Several of the Elders spoke upon the subject after dinner, acquiescing in my remarks and signifying their willingness to do all in their power to liquidate all liabilities. I told them that I knew the people would come forward and do all that would be necessary when they should would see that they the Elders were really in earnest and were determined to be economical and put an end to the contraction of debts in the future. I said if Bro. Smith would take my advice he would not permit a man to remain in charge of a Conference who would not permit his Conference to drift into <more and more into> debt or after it should be once extricated therefrom to become embarrassed again. I said much more to them on the same subject, counselling them what course to take to relieve themselves their Conferences &c &c. I told them it must be clearly understood that there must be no more running into debt after this. A motion was made to the effect that the Conference should pledge itself as a Conference and the Elders <should> do so individually to use every exertion and all their influence to liquidate the Book debt of the entire mission, and it was unanimously carried. I also, after this business was disposed of, spoke at some length on <other> the principles and was much blessed. I particularly warned the Elders against indulging in lust &c. Bro. Jesse, N. Smith and Bro. Winberg interpreted my remarks. Bro. Jesse also spoke as did Bro. John Smith for a few minutes. We have had an excellent time together during this Conference. The Spirit of the Lord has been with us, and I have enjoyed myself exceedingly. I believe this has been the case with all. The instruction that has been given has been very valuable, and I trust it will be attended with the happiest results. We ate dinner to day with Bro. Edlefson and after evening meeting we were invited to eat supper with Bro. [blank] {Hager.}

20 September • Sunday

Sunday, Septr 20/63 A large hall had been hired for Conference purposes to-day and there was a very numerous attendance of the Saints. It was estimated that there were 800 or 1,000 present. Bro’s. Winberg, Johnson, Swenson and Söderborg and Bro. Jesse N. Smith spoke in the meetings. I spoke both in the forenoon & afternoon and had great liberty, especially in the afternoon. The people listed with marked attention & we had a most glorious day throughout. I have felt very happy these three days of Conference, and I pray that the good effects thereof upon myself and brethren may be lasting. The authorities were unanimously sustained. Though it rained very heavily when we separated at noon there was no diminution in the number of the congregation; they rather increased. In the evening we repaired to a small Theatre by invitation which had been rented for the purpose of giving an evening’s entertainment to the Elders and Saints. The Choir sang some very fine pieces and then a piece was performed entitled “The Editor’s Secretary.” Bro Julius Larsen, a young man <who works> in the Office, took six parts himself and did so admirably, imitating in a <his acting in every one was> very natural manner the and pleased the people immensely. He first appeared as the Editor, then as a countryman, afterwards as a Tax Assessor, a virago <a student or poet> and a Doctor. I remarked to the brethren that in England a man who would attend such performances would be deemed a fit subject for the teachers to wait upon and he would run great risks of being disfellowshipped or excommunicated unless he should acknowledge he had done very wrong. In this Country Sunday evening is considered as appropriate, if not the most appropriate time for attending amusements —so different are <the> traditions and customs of different nations.

21 September 1863 • Monday

Monday, Sept 21st/63. Wrote a letter to Elizabeth, another to Bro. Bentley and another to Bro. Ericzon at Stockholm. A number of the brethren started on their return to their fields this afternoon and Bro. Smith and myself (being accompanied to the Station by Bros. John Smith and Winberg) started for Hamburg. We reached Kiel <Korsör> at about 10 P.M. and had to make a rush for the steamboat to secure sleeping places. Bro. Smith went ahead and I followed more slowly with the things. He secured a berth for me and the sofa for himself; but a man threw his things into the berth and tried to cheat Bro. Jesse out of it by saying that he had secured it first. The testimony of a bystander decided in favor of Bro. Smith.

22–23 September 1863 • Tuesday to Wednesday

We reached Kiel < Tuesday morning, Sept. 22/63> but too late for the seven A.M. train and had to wait until 11.20 train. We reached Hamburg between four and five. We found the steamer “Tiger,” was about to sail for Hull at 8 P.M. and I determined to sail embark on her; we went down and I secured my passage. Bro. Jesse N. Smith concluded to return this evening, and accordingly started from the English Hotel at 5.30 P.M. We thought this would be better than for him to stop another twenty-four hours merely to see me off -- there being no train again until the next evening at the same time. I ate dinner and then went on board. The “Tiger” moved from her position at 8 p.m. and dropped down to the Cattle Wharf from which point she sailed about 10 p.m. We emerged from the river about 5 o’clock of on the morning of

Wednesday, Sept. 23/63. I contrived to keep up and escape sea-sickness until dinner time from which time I was very sick until night. The weather was fine and the sea not par rough, tho’ when we started the people on board rather expected a rough passage.

24 September 1863 • Thursday

Thursday, 24th/63. I arose this morning and felt much better but was not able to eat breakfast. I was squeamish but not enough to vomit. The sea was comparatively smooth and we sighted land about between 11 and 12 A.M. and were in the river Humber between 12 and 1 o’clock and reached Hull about 2 P.M. and we[nt] on shore at 3 P.M. Depositing my trunk at the Luggage Office of the Railway company[,] I repaired to Bro. Williams’ where the Elders stopped. One of the children soon brought Bro’s. Bull and Nicholson. We spent a very agreeable evening.

25 September 1863 • Friday

Friday, Sept. 25th/63. Took a walk into the country. Went Ate breakfast at Bro. Knowles[.] He had no arms having been blown away by while loading a cannon by its premature discharge. We took dinner His wife is not in <the> church; but not is favorable and will soon be baptized. Ate dinner at Sister Pettler’s whose husband is not in the Church and stopped the afternoon and took the tea there. Went to meeting in the evening at the Saints Hall. I spoke and had good liberty. Stopped again at Brother Williams who with his family is very kind to the Elders.

26 September 1863 • Saturday

Saturday, Sept. 26/63 Bro. Bull and myself both left Hull this morning at 6 o’Clock, he to go in one direction and I to L’pool. Bro’s. Williams and Nicholson accompanied me to the boat {train}. I reach L’pool in the afternoon about 3 o’clock and found my Aunt, Bro’s. Bentley, Shearman, Graham, Parker, Reynolds & the boys all well. Received a letter from <my wife> Elizabeth, posted at Fort Laramie, Sept. 1/63. She had been very bad with the flux for several days[,] passing blood very freely. The children had the whooping cough; Georgiana had it very badly. She <Elizabeth> has had a pretty hard time and she misses me very much. She says that had she known all beforehand that she has had to pass through she scarcely thinks that she could have made up her mind to the separation; but she says she does not feel to complain in the least. The Lord has blessed her very greatly, she says, and she feels to thank him for it.

There was a Festival in the evening at the Chapel here at which I attended. It was got up for the Saints to attend, to-morrow being appointed as a day of Conference for the Liverpool Conference. The attendance was pretty good and the performances were very creditable indeed. Besides singing, there were two laughable farces[,] “As like as two Peas” and “Box & Cox[.]” Bro. John C. Graham took the leading parts in both and did so excellently. The evening was spent very agreeably.

27 September 1863 • Sunday

Sunday, Sept. 27/63 We held three meetings to-day, a good many of the Saints from the country being present. The meetings were excellent. The representation of the branches, gave evidence of an improvement since last Conference. I spoke in the all the meetings and had excellent liberty.

28 September 1863 • Monday

Monday, 28th/63. Busy in attending to Office business. Wrote some letters. Went to-day to see Mr. L. N. Fowler, the American Phrenologist, who had been lecturing in town. <Several of> The Brethren had been examined by him but he had known who they were; they were anxious that I should be examined also; but and they Bro’s Bentley, Shearman[,] and Rober John C Graham & Robert R Anderson contrived to be present; but I arranged it so that he did not know that they were acquainted with me as I was averse to his knowing beforehand who I was. The following is the Chart and the written description of character which he gave me. (Insert them here)

{Organic quality 5. Vital temperament 7-6

Health 6. Breathing power 6.

Circulatory power __. 6. Hope ____________. 5.

Digestive power ___ 6. Spirituality ________. 3.

Motive temperament .6.5. Veneration ________. 5.4.

Mental temperament _. 5. Benevolence_______. 7.6.

Activity __________. 5. Constructiveness ___. 6.

Excitability ________. 6. Ideality ___________. 5.

Size of Brain, inches _. 6. Sublimity _________. 6.

Amativeness _______. 6. Imitation __________. 4.3.

Conjugality ________. 6. Mirthfulness _______. 5.

Parental Love ______. 5. Individuality _______. 5.

Friendship ________. 5. Form _____________. 6.

Inhabitiveness _____. 6. Size ______________. 6.

Continuity ________. 4. Weight ____________. 6.

Vitativeness _______. 5. Color _____________. 6.

Combativeness _____. 5. Order _____________. 6.

Destructiveness _____.6. Calculation _________. 4.

Alimentiveness _____. 6. Locality ___________. 6.5.

Acquisitiveness ____. 5. Eventuality _________. 5.

Secretiveness ______ .6. Time ______________. 4.

Cautiousness _______. 6. Tune ______________. 5.

Approbativeness ____. 5. Language __________. 6.

Self Esteem _______. 6.5. Causality __________. 6.

Firmness _________. 6.5. Comparison ________. 6.5.

Conscientiousness . 6. Human nature . 6.

Agreeableness . 5.

You possess an unusual degree of vital power, have a great amount of animal life, more than you expend during the day. You need to work hard and eat light, in order to keep up a good balance, and ought not to stimulate, because, in so doing, you bring forward vitality too rapidly only to shorten the other end of your life. Your digestive system is very good, few have better. Your mental susceptibilities are also great; you feel, enjoy, suffer, and are susceptible to many internal emotions or external feelings. Your nervous system renders you very happy or very unhappy. You are remarkable for the following qualities of mind. Your sympathies make inroads upon your will and determination of mind, so that at times you fail to manifest the amount of real energy and real force of character that you do at other times; for when you are opposed, you are very firm and decided. But you can not say No, and turn away from an object of distress, especially if that object is a child or a woman. You are diffident and backward among strangers, and appear to a disadvantage until fully called out; but, in times of danger or great responsibility, you appear to a good advantage and are equal to almost any task. You are remarkable for your disposition to mind your own business, and keep as free from others’ as possible; would seldom go to law or interfere with the difficulties of other people. You are rather manly, proud spirited, quite independent; and anxious to carry out your own ideas; were born to be master and give directions. As a master, you would be more kind and mindful of the happiness of those who work for you than many usually are. Are not vain, have not affectation of mind, are not inclined to any excesses in your desire to get before the public, get into office, or be petted; you would not join a Mutual Admiration Society, unless it was composed mostly of ladies. Are exceedingly cautious, rather reserved, and careful about exposing your self. You take care of your own secrets, and keep your plans to yourself; and you have a good degree of economy and disposition to save and lay up for the future. Are susceptible of strong love to wife, and capable of being very much interested in the family as a whole; are not so much inclined to pet children and spoil them as you are to look after their real happiness and comfort. Your sense of right; and feeling of obligation is a distinct quality of mind, and you cannot very easily get away from your sense of moral obligation. You are not over enthusiastic or sanguine, but you take reasonable views of subjects. Nor are you very spiritual, believing, or credulous; you could become a Catholic and allow your faith entirely to monopolise your reason in that one respect, but in no other; and even in matters of religion, you are strongly inclined to reason about it and understand why you have such & such theological views. You are not qualified to imitate any one, but you take your own course, and act out your mind in your own way. You are ingenious & contriving in respect to ways and means. You are quite fond of beauty and sublimity. You have order, and are systematic. You also have good powers of speech and can tell what you know to a good advantage, especially if you are excited or feel greatly interested in your subject. You are more reflective than observing, and are best qualified for a wholesale business, where you can plan, lay out the work, and give directions, or, in a profession where originality of mind and soundness of judgement are necessary.”}

I have but little confidence in Phrenology as a perfect or reliable science. Undoubtedly there is some truth connected with it, and a man like Mr Fowler who has been following the business of lecturer for more than a score of years and has had such excellent chances to <observe and> study character must be able to hit the truth in many instances, enough to make his descriptions go down very well with a great many. There is enough of good about every character to enable him to tell a great many pleasant and flattering things, which help to make his descriptions very palatable and gratifying to one’s self-love. I think he missed some things in my character quite widely.

After he had finished the examination he asked me my business and I then told him who I was and my reason for not telling him beforehand. He looked for a second or two as though he thought he had been sold and was a little disconcerted. We had some pleasant conversation for a little while afterwards. I visited Tuesday, Sept. 29/63. Bro. Bentley started this morning to London. Sister Spencer’s this evening with Bro. Bentley and afterwards had an interview with Mr. Smith of Tapscott & Co. respecting some passengers who had been smuggled on the “Antarctic.”

29 September 1863 • Tuesday

Tuesday. Sept. 29/63 Bro. Bentley started to London this morning[.]

{Yesterday I wrote the following letter to President Young --

Septr 28th 1863.

President Brigham Young,

Dear Brother,

A longer time has elapsed since writing my last to you than I intended when I left here. This is owing to my suffering from an attack of bilious cholic in Copenhagen on the days I had intended to devote to this purpose.

As I intimated in my last, I started for Denmark on the 15th of August, & reached there on the 19th. I had the pleasure of meeting with the Saints in that city on the 23rd. Bro Jesse N. Smith and myself started the next day to visit the Conferences in Sweden and Norway. We landed at Gottenborg, Sweden, and held meeting with the Saints there and a number of the Elders who had gathered in to attend Conference. From there we went to Stockholm, and, besides holding an evening meeting with the Saints there, spent the Sunday in Conference with them and the Elders. A good many came from distant places to attend Conference, and we had a very happy and interesting time together. We returned to Gottenborg, and held another meeting of the Saints there, then took steamer for Christiana. We met with a very warm reception from the Elders & Saints in that place — a crowd of several hundred being congregated at the wharf to welcome us, to the astonishment of our fellow passengers and the surrounding strangers. We held two day’s Conference with the Elders and Saints here, besides meeting with them on three other occasions. Many of the Elders had come a long distance to meet with us. The Spirit of the Lord was poured out upon us in our meetings, and we rejoiced together exceedingly. From Christiana we took steamer to Copenhagen. I was quite sea-sick during this passage and had my bile thoroughly stirred up, but did not vomit enough; and, after reaching Copenhagen, I was attacked with Cholic, of which I have spoken, and was kept in considerable pain for two or three days. On the 18th Sept̳r a General Conference of the Elders laboring in the ministry was convened in Copenhagen. We met together that day and the next, & on Sunday, the 20th, a General Conference of the Elders and Saints was held in a large Hall hired for the occasion. These three days were much enjoyed by all. The instruction that was given, will, I trust, prove beneficial to all who were present. The brethren felt so well that they were very loth to separate. On the 21st I left Copenhagen on my return to England, & reached here on the 26th, having stopped and held a meeting with the Saints at Hull on my way here.

This visit to Scandinavia has been much enjoyed by me. I believe I have been able to obtain a more correct idea of the work in those lands than I had before, and I trust that the good effects of my visit will not be limited to myself; but that all whom I had the privilege of meeting will feel strengthened and renewed in their determinations to keep the commandments of God. There were many strangers at all our meetings that were open to the public, and there was much interest manifested to see and hear us. We had reason to believe that, in some few cases at least, among the strangers our teachings and testimonies were attended with a conviction that the Gospel which they heard was true. We were treated with the utmost kindness and respect by all with whom we came in conduct.

There is not the disposition to molest our people in Sweden and Norway that there has been in the past, and the Elders have to complain but little on this score at the present time. There are a great many calls for Elders, and there are large districts of country, that offer inviting prospects to the Elders, which they cannot find time to visit. My impressions of the people are very favorable, especially the people of Norway. I felt while I was there that if I had leisure, I would willingly devote the time necessary to acquire the language in order that I might have the privilege of conversing with them and teaching them. Norway, I think presents a splendid, though without doubt a hard field, in some respects, and I felt that there would yet be thousands brought to a knowledge of the truth both there and in Sweden.

At the Elders’ Conference held in Copenhagen, the book debt of the Mission which is somewhat serious, engrossed a share of our attention. The disposition to incur debt manifested by some of the Elders was reproved & the advantages of having every Conference free from embarrassment was dwelt upon. Counsel was given, after hearing the reports of the Elders, as to the best method of liquidating the indebtedness. The Elders unanimously agreed to exert themselves to the extent of their power and influence in freeing the Conferences from the indebtedness which was hanging over them. When this is done they will all breathe lighter.

I have been hoping that I would hear from you soon respecting the sending of Bro Widerborg, or some other qualified Scandinavian to assist in the labors there. Bro Jesse N. Smith will need to be released in the Spring and I fear that Brother John Smith will scarcely be adapted to take the Presidency of that mission even if his health, which has not been very good lately, should not fail. Brother John’s progress in the language is moderate. As far as that is concerned he might get along, but I fear that his business tact & experience in managing affairs would scarcely be equal, without some efficient and experienced aid, to the responsibilities of so important a position as the President of the Scandinavian Mission. During the Emigration season especially, the position is one that requires energy & true business qualities, as the President has to handle large sums of money for the Saints, make exchange from one currency to another and to arrange for the transportation of the Saints from various points to Copenhagen, and from thence to the Port of embarkation for the States. Brother John is the best qualified of any that will be there after Bro Jesse N. Smith and the other Elders who expect to be released, leave for home. He is much liked by the Saints and Elders and his influence and example are very good. There is no one in this Mission who will be likely to stop here any time possessing sufficient experience to warrant me in sending him over there to take charge except Bro Isaac Bullock who is no laboring in Scotland. I have not had a very intimate acquaintance with Brother Bullock, but from what I know of him I imagine he would answer very well. I mention this here so that if you have any suggestions on the subject I may obtain them. Your next letter may contain the intelligence of your appointment of somebody at home to come to Scandinavia; if not, and you should not think it necessary to send any person I think it likely that I shall send Brother Bullock over there unless something should occur to cause me to change my mind.

My last letter from you was dated June 25th. I am anxiously looking for another by the next mail.

Everything in this Mission from all that I have been able to learn since my return is going on as it was when I last wrote to you. Brother Benj. Stringham has had a very severe attack of the small-pox, but is recovering finely, and I am informed will be marked but little, if any. I heard of his sickness while I was in Copenhagen and called what Elders were within reach together, and we fasted and prayed unto the Lord in his behalf, and I had my anxiety for him entirely relieved thereby. Bro’s S. L. Sprague, Junr and John Gray Junr were found to be suffering from the itch when they reached Copenhagen. The former had it very badly. When I reached Copenhagen from England they were in the Hospital, undergoing treatment, and when I left on my return they were both well. When I heard of their being in the Hospital, I was surprised as I thought it a very unsuitable place for an Elder to be put, but when I saw how they were situated, I thought it the best move that could have been made under the circumstances. Each one had his private room, and excellent food and attendance, for which Bro Smith paid. Very respectable people were in the habit of going there, if anything ailed them, and the quarters the boys occupied were those devoted to the use of the officers of the army. These brethren, with Bro’s Brown & Evans, were paying attention to the acquirement of the language, and will likely soon master it, especially the latter, whose progress in its acquirement was very respectable before reaching here.

Inclosed I forward you a general invoice of the morus multicaulis seed, which Bro Bertrand has procured. He has promised to write you “some precious information” respecting the sowing of the seed. I have had the seed put up carefully in two tin boxes and will forward it to Ben Holliday Esqr with the request that he will see that it is forwarded through carefully.

I forgot to mention in my letters to you last Spring that Elder M. B. Shipp had been released for the purpose of assisting his father in Indiana in arranging his business and in taking his mother and sisters out to the Valley. I promised Elder Shipp that I would explain this to you when I wrote, & do so now, though rather long after his departure. His conduct and influence while here were all that could be expected as far as I know, and he gave promise of being very useful. Another matter that I intended to mention to you, but which I have overlooked, is the case of him who was the chief clerk in the office, and to whom I alluded in my letter of Nov 21st 62. In justice to him I must say that from that time up to the time of his emigration he gave evidence that he had profited by the lesson which he had received. He spared no pains up to the time of his departure to regain my confidence, and paid diligent attention to his duties. I mention this now lest my previous comments should be recollected to his disadvantage without his subsequent good conduct being known to modify it.

Accept my love to yourself, Bro’s Heber & Daniel, the brethren of my Quorum, Bro’s Carrington & Brigham Jr. Praying the Lord to bless you constantly and preserve your life.

I remain as Ever, Your Brother

(Signed) Geo. Q. Cannon.}

30 September 1863 • Wednesday

Wednesday, Sept. 30/63. Bro. Henry Parker started to Birmingham on his way to his field of labor — Warwickshire Conference. His conduct since he has arrived has & his attendance to his duties have been excellent. I trust he may be enabled to continue as he has begun.

{Elder Joseph Romney (lately travelling in the Liverpool Conference) this day came into the Office to assist in the Editing of the Star, Elder Shearman’s health being such, as to render it necessary for him to have a few weeks relaxation in travelling amongst the Conferences.

Elders Taylor, Woodruff & Machin called.}

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September 1863, The Journal of George Q. Cannon, accessed June 14, 2024