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June 1864


1 June 1864 • Wednesday

Wednesday, June 1st/64. Went to the Loan Joint Stock Bank to-day to arrange about money to pay for the ship. Received a telegram from Bro Romney at Liverpool informing me that Bro [first and last names redacted], wou for whom I had sent to Norway, would be in London at 2.30 p.m.. today. In the evening Bro. Jesse N. Smith and myself retired with [first and last names redacted] to a private room and I interrogated him respecting his conduct. He confessed to [5 words redacted] with a young sister named [first and last names redacted] in Scandinavia. He cried bitterly when he alluded to the effect it would have upon his Mother and said he would rather have been killed than have done what he did. I brought him Considerable passed; but as I have shall insert extracts from the minutes of the meeting which I afterwards called, I will not insert it. I called the brethren together (Insert from minutes)1

2 June 1864 • Thursday

Thursday, June 2nd/64. The Government Officers (Capt. Westbrook and Dr Sparks) examined the passengers to-day. I dined with <Capt Pratt,> the government Officers <Mr. Smith> and two other gentlemen and had considerable conversation upon our principles. <Afterwards attended Priesthood meeting at Goswell Road.>

3 June 1864 • Friday

Friday, June 3rd/64 [first name, middle initial, and last name redacted], for whom I telegraphed yesterday, arrived this morning and Bro. Jesse I had an interview with him in presence of Bro. Jesse N. Smith. He prevaricated and lied so much that I became very much disgusted with him and felt indignant to think that he should to seek to impose upon us by such miserable falsehoods as he framed, and which I could see him framing as he went along. He would acknowledge, just as when it was proved against him, [19 words redacted]; but he persisted in saying that he had gone no further, even <calling upon God and angels and> swearing with uplifted hand in the presence of God &c the Elders that he had never touched a woman and was innocent. I brogt brought him before the Elders who were in the house2 (Insert from minutes) After getting on board and seeing [redacted first and last names]’s familiarity with [last name redacted], though3 laughing and joking with him, though I had told him not to go with him, and behaving very improperly and not as though he had any sorrow for his past conduct, I thought it wise to have him return on the “Hudson” also, as I felt that he would do no good for himself or anybody else by stopping with the spirit he appeared to have. Besides, as I told him, I was convinced, that there was much more evil of which they had both been guilty which had not come to light. He had concealed from me until [redacted last name]’s case was investigated that he had been twice with him to brothels.

It was very wet to-day and we were disappointed in holding the meeting which I had appointed to organize the people, many strangers had expected to come. Passed the people again to see that no one should be able to smuggle themselves on board without a ticket. The Saints felt very well. I appointed Bro John M. Kay to preside and Geo Halliday, John L. Smith (who has charge of the Swiss & Holland Saints) and Matthew McCune <his counsellors>. Bro. Alex Ross is to act as Clerk and Elder Jas C Brown as Steward. We anchored The vessel moved out of her berth between 11 and 12 A.M. and late in the afternoon we dropped anchor below Gravesend. Here Capt. Westbrook came on board again, accompanied by an inspector from the Board of Trade, who had <to> Examine the Ship’s apparatus for condensing fresh water out of sea water and pass it before the ship could clear for sea. Went on shore in the evening with several of the Elders and returned to London

4 June 1864 • Saturday

Saturday, June 4th/64 I learned from Mr. Grinnell, of the firm of the Grinnell, Tinker & Morgan, owners of the “Hudson,” that the ship had sailed at 3 A.M o’clock this morning. Brother Riter and myself called upon him and had an interesting conversation. I think from what I have learned that we can do much better by doing business directly with this house than we have done in the old way. Went to Bro. Groves to supper in company with Bro’s. John W Young, W. W. Riter, and Isaac Bullock.

5 June 1864 • Sunday

Sunday, June 5th/64. Had a curiosity to hear Mr. Spurgeon, a noted preacher who had the largest congregation in London. His tabernacle is as fine a building of the kind as I ever saw and well adapted for hearing the speaker distinctly. There are two galleries extending clear around the building which with the body of the building are capable of holding 5000 persons. The building was well filled. The platform was elevated and roomy[,] surrounded by a plain, open railing. A crimson-cushioned sofa was his seat and his bible &c laid on a table which he wheeled about on castors to suit his convenience. At the back of the stand several of his leading men were seated. A lower platform was occupied by the Choir. All the congregation joined in the singing. Mr. Spurgeon is a man <apparently> about 35 years old and about 5 feet 8 inches high <and> of a full habit of body. His face is rather a heavy one with full puffy cheeks and rather a contracted forehead. His voice is very good and one of the chief advantages of his <qualifications which> he possesses. This and his impudence help him through. I did not like his style as well as I expected. His doctrine was the most soul-destroying of anything I ever heard from the pulpit. Baptism as a saving ordinance he derided. He attacked the baptism of the Church of England he attacked and exposed <it thoroughly,> and, starting from this, he indulged in <a> general denunciation of <all> ordinances, making his statements very specious by the admixture of truth which he contrived to advance. His language was occasionally striking, being frequently more forcible than elegant. His attitude was theatrical in many instances. From here Bro’s. J. N. Smith and J W Young and myself went to the Paddington Branch where we met with the people. We all spoke. Went and took tea with Brother Tansell & family. From here Bro. Young and myself went to the Goswell Road Meeting room. We found Bro. Cha’s. S. Kimball speaking. Brother Young spoke and I followed.

6 June 1864 • Monday

Monday, June 6th/64. Started for Liverpool this morning at 6 o’clock in company with Bro. Geo. Reynolds. Found all well. A number of letters were awaiting my arrival. One was from my wife Elizabeth in which she advised me of her own health, which was rather poor, and also informed me that my son Franklin had broken his arm by a fall. They thought he would do well; but the great trouble was to keep him quiet. While it was being set he did not seem to notice it[,] whistling all the time. I received a letter from Bro. Joseph A. Young in which he wrote as follows respecting his brother John’s return:4

(Insert extract) I wrote to Bro. John W. Young at London the following letter (Insert letter)

7 June 1864 • Tuesday

Tuesday, June 7th/64. Received the following telegram from Bro. John W. Young: <“Recd your letter. Will wait and accompany you home. Will go to the Continent, if agreeable to you.” > Wrote a number of letters and attended to a great variety of business to-day. Had an interview with Messr’s. Tapscott & Smith this morning.

8 June 1864 • Wednesday

Wednesday, June 8th/64. Wrote to the President Young (see letter) and to several other brethren. At 3.45 p.m. I started to London with the intention of going to Rotterdam and up the Rhine with the brethren. I did not decide upon going until to-day, though the brethren have been very anxious to have me accompany them. Found a number of the brethren at London.

9 June 1864 • Thursday

Thursday, June 9th/64 Bro’s. Jesse N. Smith, W. W Riter, John Sharp Jr. and John W. Young & myself embarked on the small steamer Fyenoord for Rotterdam this morning early. At ¼ past 8 A.M. she sailed. In passing down the river Thames we passed a cigar shaped iron vessel that was being built as a yacht for Mr. Winans, its inventor, of Baltimore. It looked like an immense iron yard of a ship in shape, or a cigar. It is expected to be driven through the water at the rate of 30 miles an hour. It was a beautiful day, the water being scarcely disturbed by a ripple. We did not get clear of land before 5 or 6 p.m. I dreaded sea-sickness very much; but I was not troubled with it, as the sea was very smooth. I dreaded the <thought our> passage on this boat <would be anything but pleasant> when I first got on board as it was small and crowded; but we it proved more convenient than I expected. Holland cleanliness prevailed on board in the linen of the bed, the arrangements for eating &c.

10 June 1864 • Friday

Friday, June 10/64. A beautiful morning, and when I got upon deck after a pleasant night’s rest, we were passing up the Meuse (Maas). The banks of the river were low, windm but in the bright morning sun, everything look[ed] pretty. We passed the mouths of numerous canals, <the sides of which were> lined with shipping. Windmills were very abundant; but the most striking characteristic of Holland, and which I remarked before when I visited Amsterdam, is the scrupulous cleanliness of the people in the houses, streets, personal appearance &c. We landed at Rotterdam at 6.30 A.M. and were taken in a Cab by Bro. Riter to his old stopping place – Hotel Frankfurt – Mr. Bakker. After breakfast we took a carriage and went out to the Hague – the residence of the Court and Foreign Ministers – to try and obtain a passport for Bro. Sharp and to get mine renewed. We took a <young man as a> guide and interpreter with us. The <country along the> road was very pretty at some points and we passed some very fine residences. The road lies alongside of a canal the most of the way. It would be difficult, however, in this country to find a place for a road that would not be near a canal, the country is so intersected by them. Canal boats are used for transporting heavy goods &c from one place to another as we would use wagons in our country. Men and women have a loop of a broad piece of leather or cloth which the [they] slip over their arms and across their breasts, and which is attached to a cord fastened to their boat and in this way they tow it along. Horses are used, but we saw men drawing much more frequently than we saw animals. On the road dogs are greatly used to draw light carts with. There are great many small mirrors fastened in front of the windows in such a position that the occupants of the house can sit in the window and see in these mirrors the persons and carriages passing up and down the street. I feel a great interest in the Hollanders and their country, because of it being the land of my wife Elizabeth’s forefathers. I fancied, indeed, that I could see a resemblance in many instances to the members of my father-in-law’s – Bishop Hoagland’s – family in persons whom I met. We passed through Schiedam, noted for its <man[u]factory of> gin; a very clean, quiet place. Eight miles from Rotterdam we passed through Delph a town of 18,500 inhabitants. This place was formerly famous for its pottery; delf-ware taking its name from this town. It is the place where <Prince> William 1st of Nassau Orange (known as the Silent) was assassinated by Balthazer Gérard, July 10th/1584. The house is now used as a Barrack for soldiers. We afterwards saw his <grey> leathern doublet which he wore at the time he was shot. It is sprinkled with his blood round the bullet hole and is blackened with powder. The pistols of the assassin and the <two> fatal bullets lie in the same cabinet. When we reached the Hague we drove up to the American Minister’s. He was absent from town. His man said that the English Minister did business for him in his absence. We waited upon him but he could do nothing for us of the character we wanted. We went from to the Royal Cabinet of Curiosities, and among many other objects of interest saw the beautiful and unique collection of rarities of <from> Japan. The lacquer work was very fine, and their dirks, swords &c are said to be excel everything of the kind manufactured in the world, excelling those even of Damascus. With one blow of their swords they can cut a man’s body in two. The armor of Admiral de Kuiter with the medal and chain given him by the Sates General <and> The armor of Admiral Tromp with several bullet marks on it <were also to be seen, as well as> The shirt and waistcoat worn by Wm 3rd of England at the time when he fell from <or with> his horse which hastened his death. The gallery of paintings contained some very fine works of some of the great masters. [“]Paul Potter’s Young Bull” was is, I think, the finest picture of the kind I ever saw. A bull, <a cow,> some sheep and a man standing by them with his hand leaning on a tree under which the animals were standing and lying <formed a group;> to the right of the picture and in the distance a beautifully <cultivated> plain was spread out. Every thing was beautifully <very> life-like, the animals being life-size, they seemed ready to start out from the canvass. The next picture which impressed me was a painting by Rembrandt of a Surgeon, Professor Tulp, attended by his pupils proceeding to dissect a dead body. The body is cut at the wrist and the forearm. Nothing can be more <truly> the color of dead flesh than the painting of this figure. The professor is surrounded by six pupils all evincing eagerness to see in their attitude and expression. It is stated that [by] physicians that it is the body of a person who died from inflammation of the lungs; the chest is very full. From the Hague we went out to Scheveningen, a bathing place about 3 miles further, where we took dinner. It was at this place that Charles the 2nd of England embarked for that country at the Restoration. The drive to this place through a very fine avenue of trees was very pretty and agreeable. We reached After our return fro to Rotterdam, we went and saw Bro. Samuel Mets who has a tobacco shop in town and had some conversation with him and took supper at his house. As he was almost alone here and there were some who were favorable I felt led to suggest his ordination as an Elder, to which all assented, and we ordained him[,] I being mouth.

11 June 1864 • Saturday

Saturday, June 11/64. Started a little after 8 A.M. for Cologne, Mr. Bakker kindly accompanying us to the Station and doing our business for us. We changed at Emmerich and had our baggage examined and about 3 p.m. reached <Deutz and crossed the Rhine to> Cologne and put up at the Grand Hotel Victoria. The weather is very pleasant, making it agreeable travelling. Went and viewed the Cologne Cathedral and ascended into the roof from which we had a very fine view of Cologne and the surrounding country. <Visited the Church of the Jesuits[.]> In the light of the setting sun the river Rhine and all its surroundings appeared very beautiful.

12 June 1864 • Sunday

Sunday, June 12th/64 Arose this morning early and breakfasted at the Hotel and embarked on the steamer Prince <von> Preussen to sail up the Rhine to Mannheim. The sail was very fine. <During> The early part of it I was engaged in writing an editorial Wrong Ideas respecting the obligations of the Work of God. We dined on board. The views on the river were very fine and though I did not feel quite so enthusiastic this time as I did when I first passed in Septr 1862, still I enjoyed the beautiful views exceedingly. When The first time I went up darkness came upon us at Rheinstein, the summer residence of Prince Frederick of Prussia. This beautiful castle is mentioned as early as 1279, but its origin is unknown. It has been completely restored by its present possessor and is fitted up and furnished in the old style, making it a very interesting and beautiful residence. Above this tower, which is on the left bank of the river, the ruin of Ehrenfels rises on the right bank. This castle was erected about the year 1210. Close by this castle are very famous vineyards, which are known as Rüdesheimer Berg. So valuable is this soil, with its excellent frontage to the sun, that the entire hill is covered with walls and arches, terrace rising above terrace to secure the soil from falling. According to the <an> old tradition Charlemagne is said to have observed from his palace at Ingelheim (on the opposite side of the river higher up) that the snow always melted first on the Rüdesheimer Berg, and that he therefore caused vine-plants to be brought from Orleans and replanted here. Opposite Ehrenfels <on an island in the river> is the Mouse Tower, which derives its name from a legend of the cruel Archbishop Hatto of Mayence who was eaten up <destroyed> by mice or rats in this tower where he had taken refuge from them, they having been sent upon him as a judgment for his cruelty to the peasantry whom he had gathered together, under pretence of giving them corn, of which he had plenty at a time of great scarcity, and burned up in the building in which they had assembled, saying, “the country ought to be greatly obliged to him for ridding it of rats that only consume the corn[.]” Above Bingen the view of the Rhine and surrounding country is superb. Here the country spreads out wider and the river is not hemmed in by mountains. The theory is advanced that the this was, at long ages ago, a lake but that finally the waters force for themselves a passage through the mountains where they at present run. We passed Briebich [Biebrich] where there is a very fine palace of the Duke of Nassau and reached Mentz, or Mayence or Mainz, at about 8 p.m. We put up at the Mayence Hotel. After arriving here Bro. John Sharp missed his purse containing £14 which he had left under his pillow at Cologne. It was concluded that it would be best for Bro. Riter to return by the rail to Cologne to get it, if possible.

13 June 1864 • Monday

Monday, June 13th/64. Bro. Riter started this morning early and I was much pleased to receive a telegram from him about noon informing me that he had obta “got the money.” Had this not been a first class hotel, it is quite doubtful in my mind whether we would have obtained or not <it.> A guide which our hotel keeper engaged took us through the Cathedral, the interior of which has been very splendidly restored. There is something about these Cathedrals & churches to me. I never enter them without experiencing such feelings as I would have if I were entering a tomb. Evil <and gloomy> influences prevail, chilling the mind and loading the one with a feeling of oppression that makes it a positive relief to emerge into the free air. This was my feeling in this building. I left the brethren and rushed out as quickly as I could, for I felt quite sick. In the Cathedral of Cologne I omitted to mention that we saw a number of persons confessing to several priests. Those who were confessing were all women. The confessional is somewhat like a sentry box with a seat in it. In this the priest is seated. The penitent kneels outside and whispers her confession through an open grating close to the Priest’s ear. He sits with a <white> cloth or napkin in his hand, with which he covers his face from any person who may be facing his box, and behind which he hides his features while speaking to the person confessing. When one had finished another stepped forward <and knelt> on the other side, both sides of the box having an open grating in them. The whole proceeding appeared horrible and disgusting to me, and caused me to have, if possible, a worse opinion than ever of the practices of the Romish Church. It must be a terrible power which these priests wield over these females, every secret of whose hearts is known to them. They must hold them by a tie stronger and more dreadful than steel chains would be. Licentiousness must inevitably grow out of such a practice, for [a] man must be more than human who could under such circumstances stifle all his feelings and the yearnings and promptings of his nature, confined as they are to a life of celibacy. If the <lawful> female associations are not forbidden (which they are) by the Church, they will be obtained unlawfully, and the confessional gives every opportunity of indulging in them; the women being taught to look upon the priest as possessing all power to remit and retain sin, to view him, indeed, as one standing in the place of God. I returned to the hotel to write while the brethren went to see other objects. After dinner we all went and saw the Eigelstein <or Tower of Drusus> within the walls of the citadel – a monument erected by the 2nd and 14th <Roman> Legions in honor of Drusus, son-in-law of the Emperor Augustus, who had been sent to the Rhine by the latter in the year B.C. 14 as Commander-in-Chief, and who first built where Mayence now stands. <It is believed the Drusus was buried here.> This tower is now a grey, circular mass of stone, 42 feet in height, and is furnished with a spiral staircase in the interior, made in 1689. The external masonry which originally surrounded the building or monument has disappeared and it presents a very ragged, dilapidated, tumble-down appearance at present. But there is one peculiarity about this and the pillars of the Roman acqueduct, which we afterwards visited, that strikes a visitor: though they the work seems to be ready to fall down at any moment, the stones being small and projecting nearly two-thirds in in a very loose, ragged way from the general pile, it is almost impossible to loosen them even with heavy blows, the stone itself breaking off easier than the cement <with> which it is fastened. The fortifications around this place, and a very good view of which we obtained from the top of the tower, are very elaborate and strong. Soldiers abound. Although the town belongs to Hesse Darmstadt, the fortifications belong to the German Confederation and are maintained by <an equal number of Austrian & Prussian> soldiers. On our way from the tower we called at St. Stephen’s Church, which had been recently restored and presented a very fine appearance. Though not so fine as some churches, I like it the best of any that we have seen. Four <brass> Candelabra in this Church are said to be the finest in the wor Europe. From here we walked out to the Roman acqueduct, which had been built to convey water to the garrison from a spring 5 miles off. The acqueduct was nearly 3000 feet long. There are 62 piers remaining, some 30 feet high; but it is said that originally there were 500. These we found about 3/4 of a mile outside of the city. Mayence is famous for two things which have had great influence on the condition of Europe, and, of course, the world – the liberation of trade from the exactions of the feudal aristocracy, and the Printing Press. It was a citizen of Mayence, Arnold Van von Wallboten, who first suggested the confederation of cities in the Rhenish League in 1247, by which commerce was freed by the oppression of the Knightly highwaymen with whose strongholds the Rhine and, indeed, the whole continent was infested. Here also John Gensfleisch (literally Gooseflesh), called Guttenberg, the inventor of moveable types, was born and resided. A bronze statue of him erected by subscriptions from all parts of Europe, stands in a public place. I omitted to mention that in the Cathedral there is a monu stone-tablet built into the wall, with an inscription to the memory of Fastrada, the third wife of Charlemagne, who died at Frankfurt in 794, and was interred in the Church of St. Albans, which was destroyed in 1552, whence the tablet was removed here. I returned to the Hotel to-night <feeling> very tired and sick. Had a bath and the brethren administered to me. <We found Bro. Riter, who had returned from Cologne, at the Hotel.>

14 June 1864 • Tuesday

Tuesday, June 14th/64. We started this morning at 5 o’clock by boat for Mannheim, passing Worms on the way, and reached there at 10.45 A.M. We took train from here to Carlsruhe, passing through Heidelburgh and a very fine fruitful country on the way. We put up at the Hotel Zum Geist (Hotel of Spirit) and was joined by a young Elder, who is laboring here by the name of Jakob Miller. He is <a> very zealous, determined young man, and to give an idea of the nature of the difficulties which have to be contended with in preaching the gospel in this land, I need only mention that he has been imprisoned for teaching our principles sixteen times since last February the 14th. These lands are dreadfully oppressed by priest and king craft, and liberty cannot be enjoyed by any Latter-day Saint. In the evening Bro. Miller led Bro’s. Riter, John W Young and myself to the house of a family of Saints by the consisting of the father and mother and five children, by the name of Vier.

Here five others came, all sisters, to meet with us. We did not think it wisdom to have a regular meeting, yet Bro. Riter sat and talked to them on the principles of the gospel for about an hour. The police are on the watch all the time and would readily pounce upon an elder if they could find him holding a meeting. I really pitied these folks and deeply sympathized with them in their condition, almost deprived of every means of obtaining a knowledge of God and his truth, except as they could gain it by faith and prayer. After talking with them, they sang two or three hymns with much sweetness and feeling. We then administered to a child which had the scarlet fever and also to one of the young women.

After we arrived here in the afternoon and had ate dinner Bro. Miller took us to the Grand Duke’s Palace, <which was> erected in 1750 and is in the form of a semi-circle. It is a very splendid building and occupies a very fine position. We were shown through the Palace, the apartments, such as the dining-hall, ball-room, and throne-room and the Queen’s private rooms are magnificently fitted up. We ascended the tower, called the Bleithurm, which is part of the palace, from which we had a very fine view of Carlsruhe and the surrounding country. The town is regularly built, and all the streets radiate from the tower, which we ascended, like the spokes <of a wheel> from the hub. They all The tower terminates the vista in every street. We visited the monuments of two of the Grand Dukes, and the Pyramid erected in honor of the founder of the city. The town is nearly surrounded by the Haardt Forest, through which the roads radiate and afford fine views.

15 June 1864 • Wednesday

Wednesday, June 15/64 We started this morning at 6 o’clock, Bro. Miller accompanying us to the Station, for Zürich. We passed through a fruitful and picturesque Country to-day. It rained all day. My health has not been good to-day and for some two days back, being troubled with a bad cold and a pain in my chest. We <passed Basle and> changed cars at Wildshut and changed at Turgi and arrived at Zürich at 5.30 p.m. We put up at the Hotel Belle Vue an Lac. Had the brethren administer to me.

16 June 1864 • Thursday

Thursday, June 16th/64. Bro. W. Perry Nebeker came in this morning, having walked a number of miles this morning since hearing that we were here. He looks well and is in good health, and has made very good progress in learning the language. I feel much better this morning than I did yesterday. We took rail at 4.50 p.m. for Lucerne, <Bro. W. Perry Nebeker accompanying us.> The scenery along the route to-day was exceedingly fine. In coming to Zug and passing the end of the lake a most beautiful scene presented itself to us. Zug The town of Zug lay nestling under the foot of a mountain and presented a very picturesque appearance in the evening sunlight. The lake itself is a beautiful sheet of water, and the glimpses of the mountains in the distance, which we caught as the clouds shifted and we changed our position in travelling, were most grand. The mountains Rigi, <Rufi or Rossberg> and Pilatus tower in the distance; besides these, there is a very fine chain of mountains – the snowy Alps, which fill up the horizon. Not far from this is the church of Kappel, the place where Zwingli, the reformer, fell in a civil war between the men of Zürich and Unterwalden &c. This was originated in religious differences. He was struck down in the fight, and a soldier, who did not know him, killed <finished> him with his sword as a dog and a heretic, because he refused to call upon the Virgin and the Saints. His body, when recognized by his foes, was burnt by the common hangman, and his ashes subjected to vile indignities. The Lake of Zug is 8 miles long <and about 3/4 of [a] mile broad> and 1340 feet above the sea. The Rigi mountain is one which is frequently ascended by travellers. The Rossberg is associated with the melancholy catasthrope which occurred on the 2nd of September, 1806. A land slide occurred on that day of about a league long in length, 1000 feet broad and a 100 feet thick, by which the rich pasturages in the Valley <and> on the slope of the mountain were entirely overwhelmed and ruined, and the villages of Goldau, Bussingen, and Rothen, and a part of Lowertz were entirely destroyed. One hundred and eleven houses and more than two hundred stables and châlets were buried under the rocks, and <more than> 450 human beings perished and whole herds of cattle were swept away by this catasthrope.

The Pilatus, according to a tradition of considerable antiquity, derives its names name from <Pontius> Pilate, the governor of Judea, who having been banished to Gaul by Tiberius, wandered about among the mountains, stricken by conscience, until he ended his miserable existence by throwing himself into a lake at the top of Pilatus. From its position as an outlier, it is remarked that almost all the storms which burst upon the Lake of Lucerne gather and brew on its summit. This almost perpetual assembling of clouds was long attributed by the superstitious to the unquiet spirit still hovering round the sunken body, which, when disturbed by an intruder, revenged itself by sending storms, and darkness, and hail on the surrounding district. So prevalent was the belief in this superstition, even down to times comparatively recent, that the government of Lucerne forbade the ascent of the mountain. We passed along the bank of the Reuss, a river emptying into Lake Lucerne, and saw some very beautiful scenery. We arrived at Lucerne about 7 o’clock p.m. and put up at Hotel du Cygne (Swan), beautifully situated on the bank of the lake. The view from the balcony of our room was most grand. The lake lay spread out before us (or rather a portion of it, for but of portion of this interesting lake can be seen from any one point) with the snow-covered mountains in <the> background, irregularly-shaped and many of them covered with pines. Pilatus looked very dark and frowning right in front of us and Rigi at our left hand and partly in front. The town itself lay partly behind us and at our left hand. Bro’s John W. Young, Wm W Riter and Jno Sharp, Jr, took a row on the lake after supper. Bro. Jesse N. Smith was quite unwell this evening.

17 June 1864 • Friday

Friday, June 17th/64. We were awakened this morning at 4 o’clock to sail on the Winkelried for Flüelen, the other end of the Lake of Lucerne. The Lake of Lucerne, or of the Four Cantons (Vier-Waldstädter-See) so called from the Cantons of Uri, Unterwalden, Schwytz, and Lucerne, which exclusively form its shores, is said to be distinguished above every lake in Switzerland, and perhaps in Europe, by the beauty and sublime grandeur of its scenery. I think, however, that <the> scenery of our country is not a whit inferior to this; but one of the chief charms of this region to my mind is its historical associations. It was on this lake where many of the stirring scenes in early Swiss history transpired. Here Tell, figured and other heroes, his compatriots, figured. The Lake lies at a height of 1406 feet above the sea level, and is of a very irregular shape, several bays branching off. The morning (and in fact the entire day) was an exceedingly rainy, and clouds and mists obscured the mountains and our view of their summits, occasionally we caught glimpses <of them> as the clouds and mists lifted. The views of the mountains Rigi and Pilatus, the one on the left in sailing and the other on the right as we sailed up the lake were very fine. We touched at Weggis, a small town, where the passengers came off in a boat; and after passing two rocky headlands, projecting from the Rigi on one side and the Burgenburg on the other, called the Noses, from their resemblance to that feature, we came into an oval basin called the Gulf of Buochs and in view of two fine mountains Buochser and Stanzer-Horn at the base of which is the village of Beckenried, once the place of assembly for <of> the council of the four Cantons. Opposite this village, and lying shut out almost from the world, except as it can be approached by water, in a cove with of the Rigi mountain, lies the little village of Gersau. This village and its surrounding cultivated & meadow land, measuring probably of about 3 miles by 2, formed for 4 centuries an independent state, undoubtedly one of the, if not the, smallest in Europe. It is recorded that the people of this village bought their freedom from a state of serfdom <in the year 1390> from the Lords of Moos, citizens of Lucerne, whose servants they had previously been. The ransom consisted of 690 lbs of pfennings—a copper coin worth [blank] – which they scraped together after 10 years hard toil. They maintained their independence apart from any other canton, and governed by a landamman and council, chosen from among themselves, until the French occupied Switzerland in 1798, since which they have been united with the canton Schwytz. The situation of the town is quite romantic, the cottages scattered around upon the hills giving it a very picturesque appearance. Scarcely an acre of it is level ground, yet <it> is covered with orchards, and supports a population of 1348 souls, dwelling in 174 houses, 82 of which form the village. I was pleased to learn, that as an evidence of the virtue and honesty which I thought ought to exist in so secluded a spot, so far removed from the outside noisy and corrupt world, that though it possessed a criminal jurisdiction of its own, no instance of a capital execution had occurred during the whole of its existence as a separate state. I am much struck at seeing <so many> houses built on seemingly inaccessible places on the sides and even on the tops of all these mountains where there is a little spot large enough for pasturage. The mountains are generally very steep and covered with timber, where verdure appears it is very green, and apparently, rich. I have been noticed also that Switzerland differs from the most of the countries of Europe which I have visited: the people are scattered all over the country and possess the right of the soil, like the people of America, and are not crowded into cities and while rich land-holders monopolize the land. To this much of Switzerland’s independence, doubtless, may be traced.

We touched at Brunnen, the port of the Canton Schwytz, and the place where the first alliance was formed between the Forest Cantons in 1315, after the battle of Morgarten. From here along the bay of Uri, which we now enter the scenery is most magnificent. Passing along by the precipices on our right hand, the head of Napoleon the Great is pointed out to us on the face of one. It is doubtless <been> formed by a freak of nature, and would not bear the slightest resemblance if inspected near at hand; but [from?] a distance the resemblance is striking. After this we come to a small ledge of meadow land, coming down to the water, which is especially famous in Swiss history as the place where Werner Stauffacher of Schwytz, Arnold an der Halden of Melchthal, in Unterwalden, and Walter Fürst of Uri met in secret, in the dead of the night, at the end of the year 1307, to form a plan for liberating their country. from They were oppressed beyond endurance by their Austrian governors. They foll swore to be faithful to each other. The following new year’s day their scheme was carried into execution, and from this origin the Swiss Confederation sprang. The place selected was most suitable for such a purpose; it is known by the name of Rut Grütli. Passing this and on the opposite side of the lake we come came to Tell’s Chapel. Here, according to the tradition, <William> Tell sprang on shore out of the boat in which Gessler was carrying him a prisoner to the dungeon of Küssnacht, when the sudden storm on the lake compelled him to remove Tell’s fetters, in order to avail himself of his skill as steersman. The chapel is a rude <an open> one lined with rude paintings, representing the events of the delivery of Switzerland. It was erected 31 years after Tell’s death, in 1388, and by canton Uri, and in the presence of 114 persons who had known him personally. The depth of the Lake, opposite Tell’s chapel, is 800 feet. The Lake, I imagine, is very deep; the green color of the water giving evidence of this. The mountains are very steep close down to the water’s edge and the water is evidently deep. We landed at Flüelen, the port of the canton Uri, and took breakfast at the Eagle Hotel where we also obtained a carriage and pair of horses to carry us to up to Altorf [Altdorf] and Bürglen. It rained so heavily all the time that walking was out of the question. Altorf is famous as being the place where Gessler’s cap was stuck up for all men to do obeisance to as they passed, and where Tell shot the apple from <off> his son’s head. A statue of Tell with the arrow in his right hand which he had concealed in his breast for the purpose, as he said, of shooting Gessler in case he had hit his son, and the cross-bow in his left, stands in the spot assigned <designated> by tradition to that him as being the place where he stood when he fired at the apple. The place where the boy stood is some distance off. A tower erected which stands in the square, is said to occupy the spot, or be near it, where the lime tree stood on which Gessler’s cap was placed. Altorf is about 2 miles distant from Flüelen. It is said to be the early home of the great Guelph family. Bürglen is a short distance further. Here Tell was born, and in the stream which we crossed to reach <the site of> his house and almost within sight of it, he was drowned, when an old man, in endeavoring to rescue a child from the waterfall of Bürglen. A little chapel was built in 1522 on the spot where his house stood. This still stands, and is close to the grave yard which surrounds the Church. We wrote our names and our place of residence on its front wall. The view from his house is very fine, and it is just such a place, as I would imagine such a man as he is represented to be, would reside. It would seem scarcely possible for any one but a freeman to dwell in the midst of such surroundings. The valley stretching out in front of his dwelling place, with the opposite mountain, reminded me very much of scenes which I have beheld on the Sandwich Islands, differing mainly in the height of the mountains here. The more I see of Switzerland the more I am impressed with its suitability as a residence for freemen and the less I wonder at the desperate efforts which they have made in various generations to defend & preserve their liberties. It is said that the inhabitants of this valley are considered the finest race of men in Switzerland. We returned to Flüelen with the intention of visiting Tell’s Chapel on the Lake; but a carriage could only go a portion of the way, and as it was somewhat dangerous for that to go, in consequence of the 14 days rain which they had had here, loosening the soil and stones on the mountain side, and it was raining heavily we gave u the idea. My health is such that I think it highly advisable to take care of myself and [not] to expose myself unnecessarily. We had a fine run back to Lucerne and before we reached there the weather cleared up for a little while and we were favored with some fine views. After reaching Lucerne we visited the bridges, the walls and the Lion, erected modelled by Thorwaldsen of Denmark and executed by Ahorn, a sculptor of Constance, as a Monument to the memory of the Swiss Guards who fell while defending the Royal Family of France in the first French Revolution. This is the most magnificent monument of the kind I ever saw. It is hewn out of the living rock in the face of a precipice and is 28 feet long by 18 feet high. The lion is wounded to death, with a spear sticking in his side, yet endeavoring in his last gasp to protect from injury a child bearing the fleur-de-lis of the Bourbon, which he holds in his paws. The expression of the Lion’s face admirably conveys to the spectator the designed effect. A small basin of water lies in front of the rock. The names of the officers who fell are carved beneath on one side, and the names of those who survived on the other. An old man, 86 years of age, dressed in uniform, and, <as he says,> said to be the last survivor of the Swiss Guard showed us the monument. I was so unwell to-night that I requested the brethren to administer to me.

18 June 1864 • Saturday

Saturday, June 18th/64. We arose at a little after 3 o’clock this morning to take the early train at 4.15 for Berne. We passed close by the field of Sempach, where the Swiss gained a great victory over the Austrians in their struggle for their liberty. Here Arnold of Winkelried showed his patriotism and devotion. He was Knight of Unterwalden, and when he observed, at this battle, that every effort of the Swiss to break the ranks of their enemies was foiled by the long lances of the latter, he rushed in and gathering <in his arms> as many <lances> as he could grasp, exclaiming as he did so: “Protect my wife and children, and I will open a path to freedom.” The gap this made enabled the Swiss to break up the mail-clad ranks of their foes and they gained a great victory, 1400 of them crushing the Austrians and killing 600 nobles and 200 common soldiers. We changed at Aarburg and arrived at Berne about 11 A.M. After breakfasting we repaired to the American Minister’s, Mr. Geo. G. Fogg’s ”Bureau” and introducing ourselves had a very long and interesting talk with him. Bro. John Sharp, Jr. and myself got passports from him and we all got our passports visaed at the French “Chancellerie” so as to have no difficulty in passing into French territory. We paid 5 francs apiece to the French Minister for doing this. Mr. Fogg escorted us to the Bears Den where the Bernese keep several living bears. Their city is named after them – Berne <in German> signifying Bear in English. The founder, Duke Berchtold V of Zähringen, who established this place in 1191 being at a loss for a name for the city ordered a hunt and the first animal that should be killed the city should be named after. He killed a bear and the spot where where the bear fell is marked by a stone with a suit able inscription. The bears have ever since been kept here and are much regarded. The [They] appear everywhere through the city in effigy. The French took the bears away when the [they] captured Berne and with them a million and a quarter of francs which had been bequethed by an old lady to them. Since they have been brought back 100,000 francs have been raised by public subscription for their maintenance. We were taken by Mr. Fogg up to his residence which commands the finest view to be had in Berne. He regretted, he said, that he had not known earlier of our arrival, as he would <have> liked to have given us a dinner. From his house we had a fine view of the Bernese Alps which are very magnificent when not obscured by clouds, as they were partially to-day. He treated us with great kindness and courtesy and we were highly pleased with our interview. He is a bachelor and a man, I should think, rising of 50 years of age. We visited the Federal Capitol and passed through its rooms, a description of which I have given in my journal in which my former visit is mentioned. Was administered to by the brethren again this evening. Bro’s Sommer and Beuttler called in to see us. We stopped while here at the Schweizer Hof.

19 June 1864 • Sunday

Sunday, June 19th/64 We started this morning by rail for Lausanne. At Freyburg we crossed the longest suspension bridge <with a single curve> in the world. It is 905 feet long, 180 feet high and 22 feet 11 inches broad. The workmen, <who> constructed this bridge, were, with the exception of one man, natives of this country who had never seen such a bridge before. It cost £24,000 Sterling. The view as we emerged from the tunnel and came in sight of Lake Geneva was sublime, but as I described my impressions when I saw it before I need not repeat them. At Lausanne we took the steamer “Helvetie” for Geneva. This is a most beautiful lake and I gazed upon it with admiration. Its surface is about 1142 feet above the level of the sea. It is the largest lake in Switzerland, being 55 miles long in its North shore and 40 miles along its South bank. The Lake is very smooth & not <frequently> troubled with winds. We st called at a number of towns to take off and land passengers on our way down. There was a large crowd of people on the quay to see the steamer land her passengers, which, as it was Sunday, were very numerous. Bro. Riter guided us to his place of residence <Rue de> Cantepoulet, No. 9., where we found Bro. Saml Hill who had come here from Biel to meet us, and the Saints holding meeting. I was <am> acquainted with the most of them, and they were very glad to see me again. Bro. Portman, <President of the Branch,> and his family are keeping house for Bro Riter.

20 June 1864 • Monday

Monday, June 20th/64. Bro. Hill has made very creditable progress in learning the German language and speaks it with tolerable fluency, though probably not yet with grammatical accuracy. We visited the “Jardin Anglais” and saw a very well-executed model of Mont Blanc, the work of an artist <named> Etienne Sene, who employed ten years upon it. It affords a very fine idea of the White mountain and its neighboring ranges and peaks. We passed through the city afterwards. Three <Several> bridges cross the Rhone and unite the – which here issues from the Lake of Geneva with water as blue as indigo and very clear – and unite the city. The surrounding hills bear some resemblance to those in the neighborhood of Edinburgh.

I received a letter from Liverpool this morning, informing me that all was well there, and also a letter from my wife Elizabeth in which she expresses her own and the family’s desire to see me at home again and informs me that they are all well. Wrote an Commenced an editorial.

Had a magnificent <Sunset> view of Mont Blanc, the whole range standing out in bold relief with<out> a cloud to obscure the view.

We took supper at Bro. Daniel Lang’s and then took a boat ride on the lake. The view of the city with its dazzling lights and the bridges with their rows of lamps, looking like a belt of diamonds glittering in the distance, was very splendid.

21 June 1864 • Tuesday

Tuesday, June 21st//64. We dined and supped at Bro. Schweizer’s. Held meeting in the evening. Bro’s. Riter, Nebeker and Hill spoke in German and Bro. Portman interpreted in French. Blessed <several children> and administered to several others and was administered to myself.

22 June 1864 • Wednesday

Wednesday, June 22/64. After breakfast strolled through town and visited the Museum Rath where we examined several paintings and <some> sculptures. There was a curious clock in this museum, which was made in the 16th Century. At the top of the clock there is a rooster standing which when the clock strikes the hours flaps his wings three times and crows <three times> after each flap. Twelve figures, representing the Twelve apostles, strikes strike the quarters at the same time. A figure lower down, representing the Virgin Mary, who is standing reading out of a book, is saluted by an angel who emerges from a door at the side, to whom she turns and apparently listens; at the same time <the figure of> death emerges from another door and the a dove to represent the Holy Ghost descends from above. When they disappear, a man appears from the a door at the back of the Virgin with a watch in his hand, then the hour strikes. We took dinner at Bro. J. B. Lang’s, and I returned to the Office and finished my editorial and wrote to Bro. Geo Reynolds <& Bro Romney> at Liverpool. I was much saddened by hearing from Bro Reynolds that 46 children had died of measles during the voyage of the “Monarch of the Sea,” and 4 had died after they landed. She landed on the 4th of June. In the evening had a row on the Lake and afterwards held a meeting, in which I gave the Elders some instruction and set apart Bro. Wm W. Riter to preside over the <missions of the> Church in Switzerland, Italy, Germany and Holland.

23 June 1864 • Thursday

Thursday, June 23/64. My health which was better yesterday is not so good to-day. I have considerable pain in my chest, and my voice is husky and has been for some days, giving me some pain to speak. At 3:50 p.m. we took train for Paris. We had our passports and valises examined at [blank]. We reached Paris, after passing through [blank] Macon and Dion at 6.25 A.M. on [blank]

24 June 1864 • Friday

Friday, June 24/64. We put up at the Hôtel des Etrangers at No. 3, Rue Vivienne. Strolled around in various directions, looking at several monuments and places of interest, visited also the Church of the Madeline. In evening strolled through the “Champs Elysee”

25 June 1864 • Saturday

Saturday, June 25/64. We started out with a guide in a carriage to visit various places. We first went to the cathedral Church of Notre Dame. This Cathedral occupies the spot where a roman temple once stood. Is considered one of the finest specimans of Gothic Architecture extant. In the Sachristy we were shown gorgeous robes, profusely embroidered in gold and silver worn by Pius VII at the coronation of Napoleon the 1st, at the coronation of Napoleon the III, and at his marriage, and the christening of the Prince Imperial. All the vestments were of the most splendid description. We were also shown a number of Church utensils of very fine workmanship and of very great value in a golden cross which we saw a piece of what is said to be the cross on which our Savior was crucified is inserted. We were shown a ghastly relic of the troubles of 1848 a piece of the back bone of Denis Affra Archbishop of Paris with the ball which passed through it when he was attempting to persuade the insurgents at the barricades to desist from fighting these soldiers. From this church we went to the Jardin des Plants. In the evening we went to the Circus and saw Leotard <upon the flying trapeze and> on some feats of riding. on

26 June 1864 • Sunday

Sunday June 26. 1864. We hired a carriage and with our guide visited Versailles, which we thoroughly examined, and St Cloud where we saw very fine fountains play. In the evening we visited The Théatre Impériàl Du Chatelet, and saw a piece entitled the Youth of Henry the IV. we enjoyed it very much. In a hunting scene a pack of hounds were <was> introduced onto the Stage, and the characters, male and female, appeared on horseback. I never saw anything to equal it. For a trifle I bought the text of the play, by the aid of which I was able to understand everything myself and explain it to the other brethren.

27 June 1864 • Monday

Monday, June 27. 1864 Visited St Stephens, the Panthenon, the two [tomb?] of Napoleon <the> 1st and the Hotel des Invalides and afterwards Zoological Garden in the Bois de Boulogne. In the evening visited the grand Imperial Opera. The play was “William Tell” with the aid of the play text I was able to comprehend it all and explain it to the brethren. There was some very fine singing, and the scenery was very true to nature in the representation of the locale.

28 June 1864 • Tuesday

Tuesday, June 28. 1864. Visited the Tuileries, the Luxemborg, Louvre, and the Place De la Vendome. In the evening rode out on the Bois de Boulogne, and visited the cascades, and afterwards rode through the principal Boulevards – Des Italiens, Strasborg & Sebastapol.

29-30 June 1864 • Wednesday to Thursday

Wednesday, June 29. 1864. We made preparations for departure this morning; but through making a mistake as to the time of departure of the train, we were compelled to wait until the next train 7.45. P.M. we spent the day in looking through the Louvre. We parted with Bro Riter with regret. He is a very intelligent and interesting companion, and I enjoyed his society very much. We reached Calias [Calais] at ½ past 1 A.M and had to walk nearly half a mile to the boat. The vessel tossed so much about, and I think I should have been seasick had I not been so fortunate as to secure a good place to lie down. We reached Dover about ½ past 3, having been about making the passage having been about one hour & a half making the passage. We had our baggage examined at Dover. We reached London at ½ past 6 in the morning of

Thursday, June 30. 1864 We drove to 30 Florence St, but found Bro Bullock absent on a visit to the Essex Conference. Bro Barfoot shortly afterwards came in. After breakfast we took tram for L’pool which place we reached about 3.30 P.M and found all well. I felt very glad to get back, went to the Baths in the Afternoon

Footnotes

  1. [1]The journal into which the daybook entries were copied has three blank pages at this point.

  2. [2]In the bound journal, the following three pages were left blank.

  3. [3]This is where the daybook with archival label v. 5 ends. The daybook with archival label v. 6 begins with deleted “Tuesday, May 17th/64” followed by “Continuation of Friday, June 3rd/64.”

  4. [4]The following entries from the end of 6 June 1864 to 1 August 1864 come only from the daybook later labeled v. 6. The remainder of the pages in the bound journal, printed from page 315 to page 464, are blank.