September 1862

1 September 1862 • Monday

Monday, Sept. 1st 1862.1 Busy writing letter to the President. My wife was busy getting ready to start for Hull en route to Copenhagen to visit Bro. Jesse N. Smith & the Saints there. <Blessed Georgiana.> Bros. West, Sherman & Perkes accompanied us to the Station. After a tolerably pleasant ride reached Hull at 9.30 p.m. & were met at the Station by Bro’s. P P Pratt, John Smith & S H. B Smith. Put up at Bro. Hallett’s, where we found a number of the Saints assembled. We were treated very kindly.

2 September 1862 • Tuesday

Tuesday Wrote to Bro. West about some matters forgotten by me. Bro. Joseph F Smith arrived. Went down and secured our passages on the Steamer Tiger for Hamburg to sail at midnight. Strolled round town and then Sister Hallett, Bro. Joseph and myself and wife went to tea at Sister Pettler’s who had sent us an invitation by Sister Pickering. In evening attended meeting[;] the four brethren spoke <and I> followed by me and was blessed with freedom. Embarked about 10 p.m. many of the Saints came down to the vessel to see us on board. We sailed about midnight. Captain’s name[,] Geo. Siddemore.

3 September 1862 • Wednesday

Wednesday, Sept. 3rd/62. Awoke this morning and felt pretty well; but not long afterwards I began to feel very sick and kept so all day <retching &> vomiting at intervals all day. It was very rough and the sea broke over us very heavily. Said to be the roughest passage made <weather experienced> this season. I was much sicker than I had been on my last two Atlantic voyages. Elizabeth was unable to get up but did not vomit. Towards night it grew calmer and we felt better and were able to eat a mouthful or two of food.

4 September 1862 • Thursday

Thursday. The sea was much calmer and we got up and dressed ourselves. Before breakfast passed the Island of Heligoland (Holyland) so named from the temple of Hertha (Earth), the goddess worshiped by the ancient Saxons, which stood on it. It was ceded to Great Britain in 1807, and some fortifications are raised on it. Its population amounts [to] 2230. It is much resorted to for sea-bathing. We took on board a pilot and after a few hours changed him for another. The river Elbe is very wide for miles from its mouth; and its banks are very pretty having villas and cottages and small villages all along them. Went to bed for an hour or two until we reached Hamburg where we were met by Bro’s. Jesse N. Smith and Petersen, the latter a missionary from Denmark to Hamburg. They We were exceedingly pleased to see Bro. Smith, he had been waiting here since Wednesday morning for us. They took us to the English Hotel where we stopped. <Landlord’s name, A H. Bargstedt>

5 September 1862 • Friday

Friday, Sept 5/62. After breakfast this morning we were joined by Bro. Petersen who guided us through some of the principal parts of the City. The new parts of the City, rebuilt since the great fire of 1842, are very fine and particularly in the neighborhood of the Alster. There is a large basin of water formed by the damming up of the Alster around which the principal hotels and other fine buildings are erected. The “Jungfernstieg” (Maiden’s Walk) is a broad walk around the sides of this basin where we promenaded and obtained some beautiful views. We afterwards took a sail upon a small steamer, very neatly fitted up, several of which ply as ferry boats on this water. We had a very fine walk among the gardens and summer residences of the upper classes. The style of architecture of some of them was very elegant and picturesque. The gardens in front were laid out very beautifully. After dinner we prepared for our departure from Hamburg for Altona, three miles distant, to take rail for Kiel. We started at ½ past 6 p.m. We had a compartment to ourselves and we had an exceedingly pleasant time in conversation. The accommodation on the 2nd Class Carriages was nearly equal to the 1st in England. The speed with which we travelled was not so great as in England. From Altona to Kiel is [blank] English and 14 German Danish miles. We passed an A Danish mile is equal to 4 miles and 3/5 of a mile English. We passed Pinneberg 2/4 <miles from Altona,> Tornesch 3/4, Elmshorn 1, Horst 1, Wrist 2, Neumünster 3, Bordesholm 1½, Kiel 2½ <miles> from each other. Arrived at Kiel at ½ past ten and took carriage to the Steamer “Jylland” (“Jutland) on which we embarked for Korsor, <Island of Zealand.> The steamer was a very good one — the best of the line. The night was very beautiful. The moon was nearly full and shone brightly tinging everything with a silvery appearance. The water was very still smooth, its surface undisturbed by even a ripple. I never saw a more lovely night. Up to this point German was the only language spoken, though Holstein in which territory we had been since leaving Hamburg was is Danish Territory. The ladies’ cabin was aft, the gentlemen’s forward. We retired for the night soon after the Steamer started and slept soundly without knowing anything until we reached Korsör. The p We passed between the <islands of> Langeland and Laaland and shortly afterwards we entered the Great Belt.

6-7 September 1862 • Saturday to Sunday

Saturday, Sept. 6th, 1862. We were met upon our arrival at the landing by Bro. Wm Cluff who looked very well and whom <we> were very glad to see. We put up at the Hotel=Store Belt (Great Belt) and took breakfast. The view of the sea from the window was very fine. Embarked on the steamer we came here on at 10¼ a.m. and sailed in ¼ of an hour. The sea was very smooth, though we had fog at intervals all day. Passed by the Island of Fyen (Funen) though we could not see it through the fog. Stopped opposite Samsöe (another island) to land and take on passengers, which were brought off to us in a small boat. At this point the steamer from Aarhuus passed on its way to Korsör. We took dinner on board. Arrived at Aarhuus about 4 p.m. and were met by Elder P. C. Geertsen, President of the Conference, and Elder S. Petersen, President of the Branch. We accompanied them up to Bro. Geertsen’s where we found Bro. <S.> Jensen, Travelling Elder, and Sisters Geertsen and [blank] {Soren Petersen, Travelling Elder, & Sister Christian Christiansen}

We had to be ready to leave on the diligence at 5 p.m. for Aalborg, 15 Danish miles (68 or 69 English mile) distant, the meal they had prepared for us (a very good one having among other articles a good wine jelly which we eat with sugar and cream) had, therefore, to be eaten hurriedly. We passed through Randers and Hobro, the only places of any note, at this latter place there is a very fine old Church. The roads are macadamized and are kept in excellent order, the best I ever saw in any country. We changed horses three times. We were able to sleep a little on the way. Bro. Jesse N Smith and Samuel H. B. Smith occupied the carriage with myself and wife. Bros. John and Joseph Smith and Wm Cluff rode in the regular stage which they and the other passengers filled. We arrived at ½ past 4 A. M. The f It was harvest time and in many of the fields the people were cutting the grain which appeared to be tolerably good. They used cradles for cutting but they were very clumsy looking compared with ours and they could not make near so good a stroke with them as we could with ours. The fields are all unfenced, all animals except dogs are staked out. We passed a great many houses, which were quaint-looking but still appeared comfortable. Wooden shoes are extensively worn by the common people, even little children wearing them, which made them look very odd. They are <a compact,> strongly built, heavy, but rather clumsy race, not handsome but healthy looking. Indeed, I think them inferior to the English in good looks, but they have much better teeth and there are fewer bald-headed people to be seen. Among the females pretty faces are the exception, and <when seen> immediately attract attention. <Cutaneous diseases are common among them.> Their diet, the brethren tell me, is very inferior, and even among the wealthy farmers the diet and mode of living is such as our poorest people in the United States would think very inferior. I think their lack of beauty is partly, and probably mainly, attributable to this poverty of diet. Generous diet will without doubt produce a higher type of physical beauty among them, and I think am of the opinion that this effect will follow the transplanting of the Saints to Zion. The brethren inform me that they are a terrible people when roused to anger. They then will not talk then and anything addressed to their reason has but little effect upon them. They are very sullen, and dogged and ferociously desperate at such times and not easily calmed. We arrived at Aalborg at ½ past 4 A.M. <Sunday, the 7th,> and repaired immediately to Bro. the houses house where the brethren lived. We found Bro. A. Christensen, President of the District, and N. C. Elefsen [Edlefsen], President of the Conference, and the wife of the latter there who welcomed us warmly. We laid down and slept until near meeting time. We met in a good-sized upper room with about three hundred Saints who appeared very glad to see us. Bro. Christensen spoke followed <by> Bro. Jesse N. Smith and Bro. John Smith whose remarks, with mine which followed his, were interpreted by Bro. Christensen who made ◊◊ter made them very plain. In afternoon Bro. Cluff spoke in Danish followed <by> Bro’s. Samuel and Joseph Smith and myself in English which Bro. Christensen interpreted, and by Bro’s. Högsted and Edlefsen, the former President of the Vensyssel and the latter President of this (Aalborg) Conference, and by Bro. Burglum, Travelling Elder. There was a good spirit and feeling in the meeting and the Saints rejoiced. I had good liberty, both morning and afternoon and the people listened with evident interest. Towards evening took a walk through the Church yard which is very pretty and from thence on to a hill which afforded a very fine view of the town which looked very pretty with its houses with their red-tiled roofs and also of the Fjord (Lüm) which is in front of the town which and separates Vynsyssel from Jutland and connects the North Sea with the Cattegat. Spent a very pleasant evening in conversation, singing Danish <and> English and Bro. Cluff, Joseph Smith and myself in Hawaiian. Many of the Saints came in.

8 September 1862 • Monday

Monday, Sept. 8th, 1862. Many of the Saints came in this morning. In the afternoon we all went up to the hill overlooking the town and fjord and spent considerable time in trying a new revolver belonging to Bro. Elefsen. We took tea in an arbor in some public grounds close by. We had a hilarious time in the evening in trying feats of strength.

9 September 1862 • Tuesday

Tuesday, Sept. 9th/62. After breakfast started in two carriages for Aarhuus, having Bro. Christensen in addition to our original party – making eight in all. We stopped at Hobro one hour and a half and had some refreshment; at Randers also where we changed horses. The people were busy harvesting as we passed by. The mile stones here are very large, round granite pillars with the Royal initials cut and the number of miles cut in. They are occupy a square piece of ground about a rod across and are surrounded by a deep trench. They have smaller stones of the same description for half mile stones. These stones are brought from the Island of Bornhohm. Besides these large mile stones there are smaller stones set up at the edge of the road marked with figures, the stones being whitewashed and the figures marked in black; the figures run from one to forty. There are forty of them in every Danish mile. The sides of the roads are planted with trees. We arrived at Aarhuus about 1 p.m. I was taken sick directly after our arrival and felt very bad and was <sick> bad through the night. It was a severe bilious attack. Bro. & Sis. Geertsen were very kind

10 September 1862 • Wednesday

Wednesday, 10th/62. Still quite unwell. I deemed it best to refrain from eating until evening. My bowels were quite deranged. I felt very much unfitted for meeting with the people or speaking to them as I could hardly sit up. We met at 10 A.M. there were about three hundred present. Bros. Geertsen, <Jesse N.> Smith and myself spoke; Bro. Christensen interpreted my remarks and Bros. John and Saml H. B. Smith’s who followed me. <Bro. Winge, President of Skiva Conference, also spoke.> Speaking had a beneficial effect upon me, though I could scarcely stand when I first arose. The hall was a very commodious one and well adapted for our purposes purpose. The people appeared very glad to see us and were edified by the remarks made. I felt well <both morning and afternoon> in speaking to the Saints and had good liberty and Bro. Christensen interpreted them in the same spirit. My visit to this land at the present will, I trust, prove beneficial to the Saints. In afternoon, Bro’s. Joseph F. Smith, Chris Cluff and Christensen spoke in the afternoon and I followed, having a very good flow of the Spirit. Bro. Christensen and Bro. Jesse interpreted and Bro. Jesse followed on some points that he omitted and in some remarks of his own. The people listened very attentively and appeared to eagerly drink in all that was said. In evening the Saints came into Bro. Geertsen’s and they waltzed for an hour or two — an amusement of which they are very fond — and then we all partook of some wine punch and cakes. I was much improved in health this evening.

11 September 1862 • Thursday

Thursday, Sept. 11/62. After breakfast this morning went and saw a very fine building with a self-supporting roof used as a riding school. We bade the brethren good and sisters good bye with a considerable feeling, they were so very kind. We embarked on the steamer “Skitner” for Korsör at 11. A.M. and after a tolerably pleasant passage reached there at 5 p.m. Elizabeth was a little sea-sick and vomited somewhat. We ate dinner at the Hotel=Store Belt at ¼ past 7 p.m. started <across the island of Zealand> on the cars for Copenhagen. This road is probably the safest in Europe; it has been built about six years and there has never been an accident upon <it> yet. There are watchmen stationed every <English> mile along the road. The distance from Korsör to Copenhagen is 141/4 Danish miles. We passed through Slagelse, Sorö, Ringsted, Roeskilde at which place the ancient Kings of Denmark resided and were buried, and Yaastrup. <We arrived at ½ past 10 p.m.> We were met at the Station by Bros. Thomassen, and Carl Larsen from the Office and Sisters <Con>cordia Petersen and Jacobina Jacobsen and Bro. Petersen from Hamburg. We found Sisters <Augusta> Johannsen and Maria Lybbert at the Office who had prepared a good supper for us of which I eat but little, having eat so recently <heartily> at Korsör. I enj

12 September 1862 • Friday

Friday, <Sept.> 12/62. I enjoyed my sleep last night very much. Walked out in the town with Elizabeth and Bro Thomassen. In afternoon walked out on the citadel walls in company with the brethren. It is named Frederikshavn and is a most formidable fortress It has and is said to be impregnable. It is, however, a virgin fortress; for amid all the changes and chances of war that have visited Copenhagen it has escaped attack. The English attacked the city in 1801 and 1807 but in neither instance was any attack made upon the citadel and its guns were not used. Its gate bears date of 1643, the reign of Christian 4th. It’s an earthwork fortress and has <very> large trees growing upon the top of the walls. and is It has 5 sides, each furnished with a double row of ramparts and cannon and is surrounded with a broad moat filled with water. In the evening we went to the Tivoli gardens which were splendidly illuminated (it being the feast of flowers) with various colored lamps and gas jets arranged in the most beautiful forms. It excelled anything of the kind I ever saw. The amusements were various: Circus riding, feats of activity, tricks of two excellently trained dogs, concert music, Indian juggler’s tricks with three sticks, with four balls keeping them all in the motion throwing them in the air, <also> four plates, four knives and two cannon balls, one much larger than the other — these latter he threw in <the> air and caught in different ways; then a theatrical performance, <a ballet dance> and a pantomime. There is a Russian railroad in the gardens called Rutsch-Bane, on which carriages run at the rate of about 100 miles an hour; its it is built somewhat in this fashion [downward wavy line drawn] and is <has> a double track, the passenger going out one way and returning another. Each carriage holds two passengers and the ride occupies about ten seconds each way. When you first get in the carriage, after seeing the speed with which it travels, you cannot help experiencing a feeling of nervousness. This left me as soon as I started. There were fine fireworks at the close of the performance. We had a fine <good> supper at the eating saloon in the gardens. Altogether it was a very pleasant evening.

13 September 1862 • Saturday

Saturday, Sept. 13/62. Ascended the towe Round Tower, a tower belonging to a Church in the city, bearing date of 1642, and had an excellent view of the city and harbor and surrounding country from its summit. In the afternoon went and viewed the Rosenberg Palace. This building was erected in the time of Christian 4th in 1604. It is an irregular building of red brick, in the Gothic style, with a high pointed roof, and flanked by four towers of unequal dimensions. The collection of jewelry objects of art, arms and costumes is very extensive and superior to anything of the kind I have seen elsewhere. There was a sword of Charles 12th among many other very splendid weapons. One watch I saw was said to be worth £6000 sterling. A small collection of Sevres china was valued at £3000[.] The seats used at the coronation of the kings and queens of Denmark are to be seen. The king’s chair is very fine. The queen’s is one mass of silver. <There are three silver lions also near these.> We saw also a very fine <magnificent> set of horse furniture, with a sword and pistols presented by Christian 4th to his eldest son on his marriage, in 1644. The saddle and bridle are of velvet, embroidered with gold and pearls, the buckles set with diamonds. The whole was made in Paris, and cost one million francs! We saw a collection of Venetian glass, presented to the King, which is exceedingly rare. The glass which is here is of the finest period of this manufacture, and the mode by which they many of the specimens was made is lost. Amongst other things that mode consisted in making the drinking cups, vases, &c., in pieces, and then joining them by fusion. The manufacture was originally established in Venice by workmen from Constantinople. The gentlemen [gentleman] in charge was very urbane and took great pains to show us everything. <The walls and ceiling of> one room which we entered had was covered with mirrors The walls and ceiling and a portion of the floor of one room which we entered was entirely covered with mirrors. Afterwards went through one of the Museums.

14 September 1862 • Sunday

Sunday, Sept. 14/62. Attended meeting with the Saints at a large Hall, rented for the purpose, morning and afternoon. The singing here was very fine. The congregation was lar attentive and numerous being variously estimated at from 800 to 1000. Elders P. W. Poulsen, President of the Conference, and Jesse N. Smith spoke and I followed; Bro Elders S. H B. Smith, C H Brown followed me. In the afternoon Bro’s. John and Joseph Smith, Wm W Cluff, Lund, Johnson, Beckström and Christensen spoke and I also addressed the Saints. Bro. Christensen interpreted. I had excellent liberty and the people felt very well. We had a great time of hand-shaking. We went and eat after meeting at Bro. Hans Petersen’s, a farmer who had sold his farm preparatory to emigration and moved into the city. They had a fine repast prepared and among articles a fine musk melon, the first I have tasted since leaving the Valley. We went to the Peoples’ Theatre in the evening — the first time I ever went to a place of amusement on a Sunday evening. The best pieces are put on the stage on Sundays and the theatres <and other places of amusement> are more patronized on that day than any other. The acting was very good as was the scenery also. There was considerable singing. The first piece was a light affair, the second was a burlesque on the ancient Greek mythology.

15 September 1862 • Monday

Monday, 15/62. Held meeting with the Priesthood this morning and afternoon. I was much blessed in giving instructions to them. Bro. John Dorius arrived to-day from Norway; his brother Carl was so far off that he could not get the word in time to be here for the meetings. Bro. [blank] {Söderborg} also arrived from Gottenberg, Sweden. The following Presidents of Districts and Conferences were present. See accompanying note.

[The following names were written in pencil in three columns:]

{Anders Christensen

Knud H. Brown

H. P. Lund

Peter Beckström

John <F> Dorius

J. P. R. Johnson

H C Högsted

N. C. Edelfsen

P C Geertsen

P C Carstensen

J Hansen

P W Paulsen

P C Neilsen

S I Jonassen

N C Flygare

L. Nilsson

A. P Söderborg

N. Rosengren

F. A Hirtz

S. Petersen

J. M. H. Langlem <Börglum>

S. Jensen

Cristopher Jensen

L. Jensen

Mads P. Sörensen

Thos. M. Samuelson

J. C. Olsen

Peter Hansen

J. P. Jorgensen

S. Nilsson

C. S. Winge

P. O. Thomassen

L. Pedersen}

16 September 1862 • Tuesday

Tuesday, Sept. 16th/62. To-day was devoted to a little business instructions and to the different Elders speaking. I also spoke for about ½ or 3/4 of an hour and was blessed with much of the Spirit and power. We held the afternoon meeting for about 4 ½ hours, it was so difficult to keep the Elders from talking. These meetings were Wednes enjoyed very much by all and I feel confident that good will result from them. The practice of courting and getting sweethearts has been very common here and this, among other things, was dwelt upon.

17 September 1862 • Wednesday

Wednesday, 17th 62. We visited Thorvaldsen’s Museum and spent several hours in examining its curiosities. The building was erected by public subscription and has forms a parallelogram, having a spacious court-yard in the midst of it, in the centre of which is the mausoleum in which <Betel> Thorvaldsen’s remains repose. The exterior walls of the building are decorated with groups of figures illustrative of the events connected with the formation of the museum. These decorations are of colored stucco, the invention of a Danish artist. The total number of Thorvaldsen’s works collected here is about 650, and many of them are exquisite masterpieces. The most remarkable are his casts of <the statues of> Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, which, when cut in marble, he presented to the Frue Kirke (Church of our Lady) and which we visited after visiting the Museum and Royal Collection of Paintings in the Christenborg Palace. His statue of Jesus is very fine and is said to be unequalled. We saw his bust of Martin Luther which he commenced on the day of his death. The Danes venerate Thorvaldsen very highly and it is said that there are few offences they will not more readily forgive than any disrespect shown to his memory. He was the son of a poor ship carpenter from Iceland, and was born in Copenhagen in 1770. Unnoticed or neglected at Copenhagen at an early age he went to Rome where he obtained employment in Canova’s studio. His talent quickly developed itself by the beauty and genius of his designs. From this Museum we repaired to the Royal Picture gallery which occupies the whole of the upper floor of the Christiansborg Palace. The collection is a very extensive one and contains some very fine paintings.

Elders Hans C. Hansen, A. W. Winberg, J. Swenson, and Christopher Holberg arrived from the Valley in good health and spirits on missions to this country.

18 September 1862 • Thursday

Thursday, Sept. 18th/62. Went and sat for my likeness by request of Bro. Jesse N. Smith and the brethren. In the afternoon walked on the citadel.

19 September 1862 • Friday

Friday, 19/62. We visited the picture gallery and Elizabeth sat for her likeness. Afterwards went out to the Fredericksburg Palace and grounds, about 2 English miles from the City. The Palace is beautifully situated upon the only eminence in the neighborhood of the city and is a plain, large, white building. The view from the Palace is very fine and ranging alike over land and sea. The grounds are extensive and afford fine walks. The reservoir from which the city is supplied with water is close to the Palace and has a large fountain in its centre. It is surrounded by an iron railing and has a fine walk all around it. It was from the hill on which this Palace is situated that the English bombarded the city in 1807. The palace was used as the head quarters of the English officers during the bombardment. We had an ice cream through the kindness of Bro. K. H. Brown at a Saloon at the entrance of the Palace grounds.

20 September 1862 • Saturday

Saturday, Sept. 20/62. Visited Museums containing curiosities from the Esquimaux, Indians, South Sea Islanders, Chinese, Hindoos, South Americans &c.

21 September 1862 • Sunday

Sunday, Sept. 21/62. Attended meeting in the Hall with the Saints. Several <Two of> the brethren spoke and I followed and had much of the Spirit in speaking of the preparation needed upon our part for the coming of Jesus. Finished letter in the afternoon to the President Young under date of the 18th. We made our preparations to take leave of Copenhagen by the 7 p.m. train. I felt almost sad in thinking of leaving[;] our intercourse & stay here has been so pleasant. The Saints bade us a very warm farewell, and in taking leave of Bro’s Wm W. Cluff, John Smith, A. Christensen, H. P. Lund and Bro’s Paulsen, Thomassen and Carl Larsen, the two latter were in the Office and Bro. Paulsen is President of the Conference, I felt sorrowful. They all, with the exception of Bro. Thomassen, accompanied us to the cars, as also did Bro. <John J> Swensen, who had just arrived on a Mission, and Sister Paulsen. We started reached Korsör at ½ past 10 p.m. at which place we embarked on a steamer for Kiel.

22 September 1862 • Monday

Monday, 22nd. Had a pleasant passage and reached Kiel at ½ past 5 A.M. We took rail here for Hamburg, which city we reached at 10½ A.m. We visited the shipping and went around town a little. We stopped at the English Hotel. Wrote to Bro. <John L. Smith and Bro’s. Vander Woude and Schettler.>

23 September 1862 • Tuesday

Tuesday, Sept. 23/62 We made an early start this morning for the ferry-boat which was to take us across the Elbe to Hamburg where we took were to take the cars for Amsterdam. The boat sailed at 6 A.M. Bro. Samuel H B & Joseph F. Smith accompanied us to the boat. They intended to return to Hull this evening by steamer. We felt some degree of loneliness in parting with them especially in starting to travel among a people who did not know our language and of whose language we knew but little. We reached Hamburg in time for the train which started at 8.40 A.M. for Hanover where we were to change cars after and wait two hours. The ticket agent understood English so we got through with the purchasing of our tickets pretty well; but we afterwards ascertained (being too hurried at the time we purchased to notice, especially as the money was strange to us) that he had given us about seven Thalers (or about a pound sterling) too little change. When we reached Hanover we telegraphed to him informing him of the mistake and requesting him to forward the money to Bro. John L. Smith, Geneva. Our ignorance of the language made our trip quite exciting and interesting. I was spokesman, and I found my little knowledge of German came in very useful. the remnant of what I had learned when a boy under the tuition of Bro. Neibuhr come in very useful. Having changed at Hanover where we saw a very splendid monum equestrian statue of Ernst Augustus Ist, Duke of Cumberland and King of Hanover, we did not get out of the cars again until we reached Oberhausen where we put for the night at the Benninghoven Hotel, a plain but very comfortably arranged house. I was able to make them understand very well what we wanted and we passed a very pleasant night here, and the charge was quite moderate about one dollar apiece.

24 September 1862 • Wednesday

Wednesday, Sept. 24/62. We took the train this morning at 8.55 A. M. for Amsterdam. We had to change at Emmerich, where we remained about twenty minutes. Here we left Germany and the German language and entered Holland where the Dutch is spoken. At Zevenaar, a short distance from Emmerich, we had to pass the Dutch Custom House, everything being examined very carefully by the officers. There was a fur rug that was bought for me in Copenhagen that they wished me to pay duty on. I declined stating that it was an article of clothing and also that I would be in Holland only a day and would return that way again and it would therefore not be right for me to pay under the circumstances; if I paid there I would have to pay in Germany again when I returned. But all I said was of no avail. They were anxious to get the duty — about $1.25, and would not even keep it until I returned. I viewed it as an imposition and was determined I would not pay it. I told them they could keep the rug if they liked, but I would not pay the duty they charged. The scene throughout was rather laughable, the conversation being carried on in broken English, German, and French and Dutch. I left the rug, however, and called for it as I returned and obtained it by the payment of a few cents for storage. We passed thro’ Arnheim, Utrecht &c. and reached Amsterdam at 2.30 p.m. where we were met by Bro’s Van der Woude and Schettler. They were glad to see us and we to meet them. We sent our luggage to Hardenberg’s Old Bible Hotel and we went to the brethren’s lodgings to take dinner with the folks with whom they stopped. Their names were Bourguion, a man and <wife,> and Sister Meyers an old lady of 69 years, the mother of the other sister. They were glad to see us and though poor treated us very kindly. The old lady had caught a bad cold in her head and we administered to her and she was healed. A meeting was appointed at the house of Bro. Dykman in the evening[;] 14 of the Saints were present[;] there are 16 in the branch. I spoke twice and Bro. Jesse N. Smith and Bro Van der Woude and Schettler once each. The latter translated Bro. Smith’s and my remarks. The branch has had difficulty in its midst which has had the effect to retard its progress. A man by the name of Van Steeter joined the branch and being a promising man as the brethren supposed they ordained him an Elder. He soon began to dictate about the way matters should be conducted and to find fault with those who were not so strict as he thought they ought to be, manifesting considerable zeal and sectarian piety and endeavoring to force his views upon Bro. Van der Woude. The latter Brother did not fall in <with> his views, and as a consequence he became offended with him and thought him not as holy and pure as he should be. The feeling between them had elicited high words and the offended brother had absented himself from meeting. I do not imagine that Bro. Van der Woude had been as wise as he ought to be or <the> feeling would not have been so strong as it was. After meeting (Elder Van Steeter having been present) we got them together and the matter was settled, and good feeling restored. I spoke very plainly to Bro. Van der Woude about the course he ought to pursue with a people like this who had just entered into the Church and who were full of their old traditions and notions. He said he would try and profit by what I had said. We put up at the Hardenberg’s Old Bible Hotel. This name is given to the House because it is the house in which the first edition of the Bible in Dutch was printed. Jacob Van Liesneldt, the printer of the Bible, lived here. Mr. Hardenberg showed us a copy of the Bible which he preserved bearing the imprint of Jacob Van Liesneldt and printed by him “in the year of our Lord 1542, on the 4th day of June.” It was illustrated very plentifully with cuts, some of which were very grotesque. The house itself is considerably over three centuries old, and the chamber which we occupied had a very antique appearance. Amsterdam is a beautiful city in my eyes, everything is so clean, the streets, the houses, the vessels and the people. Canals run through the principal streets, in which vessels ply. The finest houses, splendid buildings, in which the principal inhabitants live along on the banks of these canals combine the dwelling house with the warehouse, so intimately is commerce connected with the life in this city. A crane and all the arrangements for hoisting are on the tops top of every building, all of which stand with their gable ends to the street. The <wood and iron work of the> houses are <is> beautifully painted and the painting varnished and the cleanliness is delightful. Trees are planted along the sides of many of the canals. Holland is very flat. The Saints are curious to see the mountains, never having seen one in their lives. The whole land seems to be struggling to keep itself out of the water, Canals, small and large flow in every direction cutting farms and all lands up into a series of small islands. The people may well be <almost> amphibious. We saw a good deal of heath land that was left wild, only producing materials for brooms, and that seemed too sterile for cultivation or pasturage. Vegetables which we saw growing were excellent, especially cabbage. The people are much better looking than the Danes, and we saw many handsome men and women. In fact, since leaving Hamburg we have noticed that the people generally are better featured and beautiful faces and forms are more common than we witnessed among the Scandinavians. The peasantry in Holland, as also in <some parts of> Germany and <in all> Scandinavia, and indeed wear wooden shoes, huge, misshapen <clumsy> things, but yet warm and comfortable, said to be by the brethren who have seen them worn, especially in cold <or> wet weather. I could understand very well after seeing Holland how difficult it must have been for an invading army to meet with any success. It does not seem to require any labor to flood the country with water and to make it impassable — the labor is to prevent the its encroachments and it must be a require man has had to maintain a perpetual struggle with the watery element to keep afloat. They have very fine cattle here and they raise them in large numbers. Women throughout this country, Germany, Scandinavia and, indeed, all the continent, belonging to the peasantry have to work in the fields and perform the most severe and heavy labor. As a rule, we counted more women than men digging potatoes and harvesting the crops. They seem to be completely unsexed, and have lost all that delicacy which distinguishes them from the other sex. A What we witnessed a few days after leaving Holland, on Saturday, Sept 27/62 the day we reached Basel in Switzerland, in passing through Wurtemberg, illustrates completely how common it is for women to perform the labors of the field; instead of having a scarecrow dressed in men’s clothes as with us, for the first time in our lives we saw one in the field dressed in women’s clothes; I expect a man is not so common a sight in the field as a woman and the fowls birds would be less likely at a to be frightened away at the sight of a scarecrow in his clothes as a woman’s.

25 September 1862 • Thursday

Thursday, Sept. 25/62. I decided on removing Bro. Schettler from Holland to Switzerland. There One is as many as can operate to advantage here at present and even he must receive some aid from Liverpool to be able to sustain himself. Another reason for my thinking it wise to remove them <one> was, they had not been as united as they should be. They are very dissimilar in their manners and tastes and had differed somewhat in their views &c. We left Amsterdam at 10.25 A.M. Before leaving we saw a man dressed in black with knee breeches and black silk stockings and a flat three cornered <black> hat round which was tied a black crape very long the ends reaching down the back below the waist of his coat, going through the streets and calling at various houses. Upon asking who and what he was we learned that his business was to go around upon the death of any person of note and inform the people (his acquaintances I suppose) of his death &c. We also looked at some Churches and the King’s Palace. The Churches are very fine and large, they have a passion for fine churches throughout this country and Germany. The kings palace is a very fine, large building but with a contemptible entrance entirely unsuited to the size and character of the building. We changed <cars> at Arnheim, Emmerich and Oberhausen and reached Cologne <Deutz> in the evening at 8.40. We put up at the Hotel de Hollande <at Cologne.> The house was on the bank of the River Rhine, and from the window of our room we had a beautiful view of the river. Deutz is on one side of the river and Cologne on the other[;] we crossed from Deutz in the omnibus on a bridge.

It commenced raining very heavily before reaching Deutz.

26 September 1862 • Friday

Friday, Sept. 26/62. We requested to be awakened early this morning so that we might have time to make a visit to the famous cathedral in Cologne before starting up the Rhine; but they neglected to do so. We lost half an hour in consequence. The Cathedral is a magnificent building 511 ft. long and 231 feet wide and is said to be the most perfect specimen of Gothic architecture extant. The work upon the windows, doors, spires &c. is most delicate, resembling fine network more than cut stone and is marvellous in its execution. The building was commenced in the year 1248 and is not yet finished, workmen being employed upon it constantly. We had not time to examine it with that attention which we wished; but I was particularly struck in passing through the building with the beauty of the stained glass windows, all representing scenes from Sacred and profane history. They were performing service when we visited the building. Cologne is principally Catholic I am informed and they are very proud of their Cathedral. We ate our breakfast very hurriedly and embarked on a Rhine steamer at 7 A.M. My object in taking steamer in preference to rail was its cheapness and the splendid view of scenery to be obtained in passing up the river. We were afraid last night that <it> might be rainy to-day; but it was all that could be asked. and The trip was exceedingly delightful <and> the scenery picturesque. The Rhine reminds me very much of the Hudson River tho’ I think it scarcely so wide. In leaving Cologne we had a very fine view of the city, the Cathedral towering high above the surrounding buildings, the difference <of size> between it and the rest being more apparent as we left the City in the distance. We touched at Bonn on the left bank of the river, the same side on which Cologne is built and at [blank] {<Andernach, Neuwid,> Coblentz, Rudesheim <St Goar, Oberwesel,> and <Bacharach>[,] Bingen[,] Rudesheim and Biebrich} on our way up. I <have> often heard of the vine-clad hills of the Rhine, but I failed to get any idea, from any written account, of their beauty and their abundance. After leaving Cologne the country was <is> flat until reaching in the vicinity of Bonn, before reaching which the Seven Mountains loom grandly up in the distance. From Bonn upward to Mayence or Mainz, the country is very picturesque, though it is not <so> mountainous after reaching Bingen, about 2 hours sail below Mayence. Every hill which faced the South was <is> covered with vines. These are principally on the right bank of the stream, and the land was <is> devoted principally to their cultivation, no grain being visible. Every foot of available ground is used on the hill-sides and in many places where the hills were <are> favorably situated soil has been carried up and in many some places where the finest wines are produced the soil baskets are used to keep the soil. In most instances the hills were <are> very steep and were <are> cultivated to the very top. Manure and has to be carried up on the back and the fruit had to be carried down on the backs of the men & women, the hills being in many instances inaccessible to animals. The furrows were <are> not made across the hills but up and down. We passed about [blank] castles and ruins of castles on our way up the river. Mostly They all occupied most commanding and beautiful situations, having been selected for as suitable spots for such fortresses in an iron age when might made right and the strong hand ruled and impregnability and a[n] extended range of view were desiderata. I was struck particularly with the excellence of the masonry displayed in their erection. Some which we saw were said to have been dismantled six hundred years ago and yet though they have been exposed to the constant action of the elements for that period their walls and towers <still> rear themselves proudly without exhibiting the decay that might be expected. (Insert here the name of two castles destroyed in the 13th century by a citizen of Mayence) {The names of <two of> the castles are Falkenburg and Reichenstein, which were destroyed in 1261 by the Hanseatic Confederation founded by Arnold Walpoden, a citizen of Mayence.} The labor in erecting them must have been extraordinary. Oppression and wrong doubtless in the most of instances must have been resorted to by the barons and knights who reared these piles, and practiced upon the weak and defenceless peasantry by whom they were surrounded to accomplish their wishes. The first castle which we saw was on the right bank of the stream and was called Drachenfels. Its position was most magnificent and before the discovery of artillery it must have been impregnable. Perched like an eagle’s nest <eyrey> on top of a cliff-like mountain the view from it must have been most beautiful. It would be tedious to name the various castles which we passed. Those most remarkable were Ehrenbreitstein, on the right bank, Stolzenfels on the left, Marksburg, on the right and Rheinfels on the left. The first of these (the broad stone of honor) <the Gibralter of the Rhine,> was destroyed after the [blank] {peace of Luneville, <1801,>} and rebuilt again by the King of Prussia at a cost of 5,000,000 of dollars. It mounts 400 {guns} and is a most formidable looking fortress. The town of the same name is connected with Coblenz (a very fine city situated at the confluence of the Mozelle and the Rhine) on the left bank of the river by the bridge of boats, out of which two or three can be quickly moved which was done when our steamer passed through. Stolzenfels (Insert here respecting French monument at Coblenz) The castle of Stolzenfels is a very grand edifice, a summer residence of the King of Prussia, by whom it has been restored from its ruined state. Queen Victoria was entertained here by his majesty in 1845. Marksburg occupies a very commanding situation and is a very venerable extensive place, being the only one of the numerous castles on the Rhine which has escaped destruction. It stands now as it did hundreds of years ago and gives us an excellent idea of what they looked like when they were occupied by their former lords. Rheinfels is the most extensive ruin on the river. This immense stronghold was built in 1245 by <the> Count of Katzenellenbogen. In the hands of the Landgrave of Hesse it baffled the French in 1692 but was taken and blown up by them in 1794. This part of the Rhine from Bonn upward is called the “Paradise of Germany” and I think <too> with propriety, for the scenery is most lovely and grand. Darkness overtook us at Bingen where the river “[blank] {Nahe,} which separates Darmsdadt from Rhenish Prussia. We reached Mayence at 9 p.m. and put up at the “Rheinnischer Hof” kept by Mr. Haenlin.

27 September 1862 • Saturday

Saturday, Sept. 27/62. Visited the Cathedral here — a very magnificent building containing, it is said, <the> different styles of architecture since the year 978. Workmen were engaged renovating the interior, chiseling anew the stone and frescoing the ceiling. Confessionals abounded in the building and there were very many monuments of church dignitaries. Scenes connected with the crucifixion and burial of Jesus Christ cut in marble and carved as well as crucifixes were quite plentiful throughout the building. We visited a statue in a square close by of Guttenberg cast in bronze after Thorwaldsen’s model. Passed through the market place and saw as fine fruit, apples, pears, & plums as I ever saw. They were quite cheap, pears being a little less than a half penny. We started at about 11 A.M. for Basle, crossing the Rhine to Cassel in a steamboat. The Main comes into the Rhine here. They are erecting a fine Railway bridge here. We passed through Darmsdadt, Heidelberg, <with its famous castle,> Bruchsal, Carlsruhe, and Freiburg, in the latter town is a very lar Church with a very splendid high tower, 385 feet high. Bro. John L. Smith had written to me about meeting us at Carlsruhe in the first place; but had afterwards sent me word that he thought it would scarcely answer to stop there as the Saints had been forbidden to pray in their houses and if we saw <them> we would have to visit them by stealth. We telegraphed from Heidelberg to Bro. Smith advising him that we would be in Basle at 7.25 p.m. But he did not meet us, not being in town as we afterwards ascertained, so we repaired to the Hotel de la Poste, the place <house> he had referred us to. We had some <excellent> honey for supper. I mention it for we enjoyed it very much and it was in constant demand for by us at every meal causing considerable amusement for while we were together. We crossed the Rhine to reach Basle.

28 September 1862 • Sunday

Sunday, Sept. 28/62. We found Bro. Pius Hirth’s house where Bro. John L. Smith stopped when here. He was out; but Sister Hirth received us cordially. He soon came in. They said they expected Bro. Smith hourly. We went back to the Hotel and Sister C. and us <ourselves> went to the Railway Station and ascertained when the trains would come in from Geneva. We afterwards went to the Station about 5 p.m. and met Bro. Smith. He had not received my letter written from Amsterdam until this morning and had started off to meet us immediately on its receipt. We were delighted to meet each other. He went and took dinner with us and put up <at> the Hotel. We went to Bro. Hirth’s at 7 p.m. to hold meeting with the Saints. Six Saints met with us and spoke twice, Bro. Schettler interpreting and Bro. John L. and Jesse Smith and Bro. Schettler also speaking. We had to be quiet and omit singing so as not to attract too much attention; for, however free Switzerland may be in some respects, it does not allow that degree of religious liberty which is necessary to allow every man to worship God according to the dictates of his conscience without fear of molestation. It was a sweet little meeting at which we all enjoyed.

29 September 1862 • Monday

Monday, Sept. 29/62. We all took a bath this morning. At 2.25 p.m. we took train for Zurich. The scenery was beautiful, reminding me very much of our home. The Swiss may well love their country, for it is a lovely land, a fitting home for a free people. We passed through a tunnel which which is three miles long; we were 5½ minutes passing through. We passed through Olten and Aaran <(the latter the capital of the Canton Aaran)> & Baden and crossed a beautiful stream called the Aare. We reached Zurich at 5.42 P.M and put up at the Hotel Belle Vue which is built on the edge of Lake Zurich. Zurich is most beautifully located at the end of the lake and on both banks of the stream (the Limat) which flows boldly out of the lake. The mountains which are on each side and come sloping down to the lake and stream form a splendid background to the City and affords splendid building sites. Lake Zurich is [blank] miles long and [blank] miles wide {Lake Zurich is 30 miles long and 4½ miles wide} and is a beautiful sheet of water. They are building extensively in the city. The city has narrow streets and the houses look antiquated and remind one of pictures of Swiss and continental scenery which are common in England and America. From the balcony of our room we had a very beautiful view of the lake, which lay at our very feet as it were, and the mountains on the opposite side. The moon shone through a thin veil of clouds upon the water and lent a mysterious light to the surrounding objects.

30 September 1862 • Tuesday

Tuesday, Sept. 30/62. We strolled a little through the City today. Elizabeth concluded upon my recommendation as we had considerable coach travelling and knocking around to do, to stay in Zurich until we returned. Bro. Ulrich Forrer, the President of the Conference called upon us. We appointed a meeting for Friday evening. We took the cars at 2.25 p m for Winkeln, changing at Winterthun [Winterthur]. We <were> met and joined at Gossau by Bro. John Huber, a travelling Elder in charge of East Switzerland under Bro. Smith. He is a young man of 22 years and very promising. He resembles Bro. Thos Williams, formerly of the Liverpool Office, very much. From Winkeln we walked to Herisau, 2 miles distant, the capital of Canton Appenzell. We put up at the Lion Hotel. We found after meeting with Bro. Huber that it would be unwise to hold meeting with the Saints here as there was a disposition to persecute and last Sunday’s meeting had excited the people very much. As they would nearly all be able to meet with us on Sunday it was not so much a cause of regret as it otherwise would have been. There is a law nearly if not quite universal throughout Switzerland, but particularly enforced in small places, prohibiting all residents from entertaining strangers, under a penalty of from 5 to 10 francs and, if repeated, imprisonment. By taking the passport of the stranger to the police and leaving it with them, a householder <in some places> is permitted to entertain a stranger for a night, calling again at until he calls for the passport again. The Elders have to meet with the people very quietly and secretly. They can put a Foreign Elder out of the country, if they wish, and it is not infrequent for them to put the Elders in the lock-up for proselyting. Bro. Huber was found in the house of one of the Saints in Canton Glarus and by the Police and was locked up for the night in a wood shed and <was> then escorted to the boundary of the Canton and told never to cross there again. In his own

It commenced raining very heavily.

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September 1862, The Journal of George Q. Cannon, accessed February 25, 2024