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March 1854

1 March 18541 • Wednesday

Wrote to Bros. Woodbury & [Albion] Burnham. In afternoon went up the valley to meeting.

2 March 1854 • Thursday

To day was fast day and I attended and enjoyed it much. O Father I pray unto thee to deliver me continually from a feeling of carelessness and security but may I continually have my thoughts upon thee and seek to find favor in thy sight, that I may always take heed lest I come under the influence of any other spirit but thine and so but may I be filled with the revelations and cheering influences of thy Holy Spirit every minute of my life for the sake of thy son Jesus. Amen

3 March 1854 • Friday

Wrote a letter to <Cousin> George [Taylor], in the Valley and commenced one to Angus [Cannon].

4 March 1854 • Saturday

Writing to Bro. Elias Smith and finished Angus’. Received a letter from . . . confessing his sin, moe kolohe [adultery], and telling what awful feelings he had and how very bad he felt at losing his license, and how desirous he was to do right and forsake his sin, he was anxious to get the privilege of helping roll the work forward, he was willing to labor in any capacity, deacon, teacher, or even remain a member. He told me what he thought was the cause.

5 March 1854 • Sunday

Preached this morning and was followed by Bro. Paulo Maewaewa. Baptised two men during intermission. In afternoon attended to the Lord’s supper; we enjoyed the meeting very much. Wrote a letter to Bro. [Jonathan] Napela and one to Bro. George Raymond.

6 March 1854 • Monday

Writing &c. Finished my letter to the king [Kamehameha III].

7 March 1854 • Tuesday

We started this morning, Bro. Lililehua & I, to go around by Waialua to all the branches. We passed thro’ Ewa where the Calvinists have a meeting house built; there is a splendid harbor here [Pearl Harbor], excellent anchorage, well sheltered and abundantly deep for the largest men-of-war anchor—the great difficulty is that the bar is so shallow that vessels cannot enter, this, it is said, might be remedied by an appropriation. We passed thro’ a splendid Kula some parts of which reminded me much of the bottoms of California—it appeared like excellent soil. I arrived at Waialua about ½ past 4—I think it is about 35 miles from Honolulu. It is a very pretty place, very well watered, a great deal of corn planted both by whites and natives. When I arrived at the house of the teacher, Keoeoe, there was a woman there, who I found did not belong to the church, who did not seem at all anxious to have me stay. She commenced by telling me that she and Keoeoe were only living by permission at this house, at the same time pointing out the house of one of the brethren to me who she said was equal in authority with Keoeoe. These with other remarks of the same purport spoken in a kind of broken native very frequently spoken by the natives to foreigners who do not understand the language, made me feel indignant and I commenced telling her how mean and despicable her conduct was, that I was a stranger, I had not come to impose upon her nor to ask charity from her, saying, that if she had known our rules that she would have known that it was customary for us to call on the principal officer. I told her that I had travelled over the greater part of the islands, but she was the first woman that had insulted me in such a manner. I talked to her without showing any anger,—but she could see very plainly that I was hurt,—I had reasoned with her until she was completely softened and asked him me to forgive her & said that she had done wrong. After a while Keoeoe returned and I asked him where was the most suitable place for me to stop; he would hear not hear anything about my going anywhere else. I spent a very agreeable evening talking with the people of the house and those that come in.

8 March 18542 • Wednesday

Started this morning for Puheemiki [Puhe‘emiki] passed thro’ Waimea where some white men were killed soon after the discovery of the islands; the natives thought they were gods on account of the fire which came out of their mouths—smoking. They commenced throwing stones at them in order to prove whether they were <or> not and when they cried out when they were hurt then they knew they were not gods or they would not cry out. Passed thro’ Kauhuku [Kahuku], Laie [La‘ie], Hauula [Hau‘ula], and several other places and stopped at Puheemiki—the presiding priest was sick and had gone to his father’s at Punaluu [Punalu‘u] to live. About 25 miles to this place.

9 March 1854 • Thursday

Met this morning with a few of the saints and was blessed in talking to them. Passed thro’ Kaawa [Ka‘a‘awa], Kualoa, and arrived at Hakipu [Hakipu‘u] at the house of [J. H.] Keanu and at Bro. [John] Pemberton’s. They pressed me to stay and I concluded it best to stop and preach to them. We had a meeting and a tolerable attendance of strangers, I preached and was blessed with an excellent flow of the spirit altho’ I felt very weak and deficient. Slept at Bro. Pemberton’s.

10 March 1854 • Friday

Rained a good deal last night and this morning, I had a good meeting this morning and after breakfast I started for Heeia passing thro’ Kahuluu [Kahalu‘u] and arriving at Heeia about noon. Bro. Hawkins was not here. I went over to pass the afternoon at Kaneohe at the house of Bro. Kaina. Bro. Pupule was very kind and attentive. The roads were very bad.

11 March 1854 • Saturday

Showery and disagreeable. after Met with some of the saints this morning. After breakfast went over to Heeia. I went to work with the brethren putting up a bowery (lanai) by exerting ourselves we were enabled to complete it—Bro. Hawkins joined us about noon. Bro. H. baptised four—3 young women and 1 young man. In the evening I baptized a Catholic, a young man. A good many of the brethren from and sisters came from Honolulu thro’ the rain and mud which was very bad in Nuuanu—many of them came on foot. I was pleased to see them manifest such faith and I felt that they should be blessed. Bro. Hy. [Bigler] arrived from Honolulu also about 8 o’clock having rode over.

12 March 1854 • Sunday

Held morning meeting and we were blessed with the spirit. In forenoon, altho’ quite wet and disagreeable, we had quite a good attendance, Bro. [Akuna] Pake spoke, followed by Bro. Hawkins and me. In afternoon attended to the sacrament; I spoke from the 3rd Chap. of Malachi showing the necessity of the Lord raising up a prophet that the scriptures might be fulfilled and showing how necessary it was that we should hearken unto his voice in all things even as the voice of the Lord, for it was the voice of the Lord to us. I was blessed much with the spirit of teaching and all felt to rejoice.3

13 March 1854 • Monday

Held early morning meeting, Bro. [J. W. H.] Kou spoke and I followed I spoke on the rise and progress of the church and the work that Bro. Joseph [Smith] had done—it was a very interesting subject to me, and also appeared so to the rest. I was much edified and filled with joy and blessed with a goodly portion of the spirit to teach &c. At 10 o’clock conference commenced I was called upon to open by prayer. Bro. Hy. W. Bigler was supported as president of this island, Bro. Kou was appointed Clerk of Conference, we afterwards supported Bro. Lewis as President of the Mission and Bros. Tanner & Karren as his counsellors, also Bro. Brigham Young as President of the whole church and Kingdom of God on the earth and Bros. Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards as his counsellors. Bro. Hawkins spoke showing the propriety and object of the Conference &c. The brethren made their representations [blank] Seventies, 1 High Priest, [blank] Elders, [blank] Priests, [blank] Teachers, [blank] Deacons, [blank] Members, [blank] Branches. The branches, generally, were in a pretty good condition. One elder was ordained, [blank] Priests, [blank] Teachers, [blank] Deacons; and one elder, Kaina, was appointed to go to Hawaii. Bro. Hy. called upon me to speak I made some remarks on the necessity of diligence on the part of all who held the priesthood &c., &c. We then rested for an hour. In afternoon Bro. Hy. called on Bro. Maewaewa to speak, Bro. Hawkins followed and then Bro. Hy. was called upon me, I arose and spoke and was filled mightily with the spirit. I spoke on the principle of the gathering showing from the prophecies that there had to be <a> gathering and that a great work had to be done in the mountains in the last days. The people were rivetted and listened in breathless silence and all felt filled with joy. Dismissed. In evening held meeting and spoke on the nature of the offices, priesthood &c. setting before them the requirements of the priesthood.4

14 March 1854 • Tuesday

A good many of the brethren sat up all night talking and reasoning on the scriptures &c. In morning we held morning meeting, I spoke and was followed by Bro. Hawkins, we had a good meeting and was blessed. After breakfast the people separated for their several homes. This has been a time of enjoyment both for us and the saints, much good instruction was given which cheered the hearts of all, and caused us to rejoice much in the glorious principles revealed by the gospel. Bro. Hy. & James [Hawkins] both said they never enjoyed any meeting better on the islands. I, myself, was filled with peace and joy and felt that the Lord had blessed me beyond my expectations in teaching &c. for I was filled with ideas and thoughts by the spirit and felt softened and desirous to glorify the Lord for having blessed me so much. We ate breakfast at [the] house of Bro. Hoonuu, Kaneohe. I started back with several of the brethren and sisters on horseback, the roads were very bad, especially in the Nuuanu valley, mud up to the horses’ belly. I found the brethren all well, Bro. Tanner intending to sail on the morrow, that is, the vessel was advertised to sail then. My trip around the island has been pleasant, the branches were not in as good a condition as they might or ought to be, but I think that there will be an improvement from this time forward and they will begin to increase in faith, good works and numbers. It is very level and good travelling on the roads generally on this island, better a great deal than any of the other islands; Kauai I thought was very good in this respect when compared with Maui, none of those tremendous pali’s (hills or steep places) that they have on that island. In places <on this island> the country looked rough, but some of it lay good for farming purposes and was <is> a very good grazing country.

There were not many white men on this side of the island, a few missionary dwellings are the only buildings of any consequence, excepting the native straw and pandanus leaf houses, they look more like hay stacks than anything else. Many of the houses are low and the doors small, others again are quite high, airy buildings. They are generally built by setting upright posts in the ground, with sometimes a slight inclination inward, about three feet apart, upon these posts a plate, or pole is laid, upon this the heels of the rafters are rested, leaning and lashed to the ridge pole; the aho’s are then lashed on <horizontally>, (they are small poles about an inch in diameter,) the main ones being about a foot apart and lashed to the upright posts and rafters, and the minor ones are fastened between the main ones and kept in their place by being lashed to a small upright pole which is placed between the upright, main posts; when the aho’s are all fastened on, sometimes with twine sometimes with a tough, cord like vine, <being from two to four inches apart,> the house looks more like a cage than anything else.5 Very frequently before fastening on the thatching, they put on an inside lining, between the ahos and the thatch, of leaves of the sugar cane, or large rushes; the hand is easily inserted between this to fasten the twine to the ahos by which the thatching is secured. A house well thatched after this fashion, is completely impervious to the heaviest rains, and <are> cool, comfortable habitations in the summer; the fault with them is, that every change in the weather is too easily felt. Inside, the floor is lined with mats, sometimes made out of the leaves of the pandanus, when they are not convenient, rushes are used. The place of sleeping is always covered with the best mats, some are fine and soft, sometimes this is elevated several feet from the level of the floor. In the houses of the common <people> they have no furniture, occasionally you will see a chair or two and a table, but they never eat sit up to the table to eat, preferring to sit on the mats; they say, many of them, that they cannot eat hearty or till they are satisfied, when they sit up to a table. Spoons or knifes and forks are not used by them, although it is quite common for them to have them in their box, stowed away.

I commenced writing home this afternoon to send by Bro. Tanner, I sat up until morning writing, and wrote a letter to Elizabeth [Hoagland], Chas [Charles], & Mary Alice [Lambert], and Bro. Brigham.6

15 March 1854 • Wednesday

Bro. T. did not sail to-day. As the Maria was going to sail this afternoon for Lahaina, I thought it best to take passage on her, bidding the brethren farewell with regret. It was stormy outside of the harbor, the waves dashing over and wetting every body on deck very frequently. I was quite seasick all night. This is the greatest trial I have in travelling about. I am so very bad almost as soon as I step on shipboard, I cannot enjoy anything when I am so seasick.

16 March 1854 • Thursday

A head wind, we crept slowly along. I had some conversation with two of my fellow passengers, Capt. [Charles P.] Low, master of a fine clipper ship, N.B. Palmer, and Capt. Merchant, a whaler. Low opposed the work, but still acted gentlemanly, and said that he was open to conviction and wished to get some of our books. We arrived at Lahaina about sun down. I found Bro. & Sis. [Mary Jane] Hammond and family all well, Sis. Gaston was living with them. I felt glad to see them and to get on terra firma again.7

17 March 1854 • Friday

Reading &c. Feeble from the effects of sea sickness. The king’s birth day, horse riding and drinking quite common. Wrote a letter to Bros. [Ephraim] Green & Woodbury.8

18 March 1854 • Saturday

Wrote a letter to Bros. Lewis &c. &c., and one to Bro. Wm. Farrer, Kauai. Bro. Tanner sailed to-day from Honolulu to the coast on the barque John Wesley.9

19 March 1854 • Sunday

Attended Bible school, and afterwards, by the request of Bro. Hammond, preached and gave a sketch of my labors and urged them to diligence. I was blessed with the spirit.10 In afternoon Capt’s. [Otis] Snow and Murdock called in, and we had an agreeable conversation with them. Capt. S. was in Lahaina in the fall of ’51, he was then mate, I had quite a conversation with him at that time on our principles. He seems like quite an honest man. In afternoon meeting Bro. Hammond preached and I followed.

20 March 1854 • Monday

Went down this morning and acted as interpreter, in place of Bro. Hammond, at the Police court.11 I found two letters in the office for me, one from Bro. Tanner, and one from Bro. Hawkins, from which I learned of the arrival of Bro. [William] McBride at the coast, he had written a letter to Bro. Johnson. Bro. [James] Kipp had also written to him from San Bernardino, informing him of his arrival there, and that he was pleased with the place and people. He says that Bro. C. [Charles] C. Rich was very sick indeed—this I was very sorry to hear this, for I loved Br. R. much for his kindness to me. From Bro. K’s letter also we get the news of the apostacy of Bros. [Addison] Pratt & [Benjamin F.] Grouard to the spirit rappers, and that they were intending to return to Tahiti.12 This surprised me much, to hear of <such> men’s downfall and their departure from the paths of righteousness to follow after such deception, after they have known and partaken of the gift of the Holy Ghost and taught <their fellow men> them they way of life, and I felt to pray to the Lord to grant unto me His Spirit every hour and minute of my life, that I might not be assailed by temptation in an unprepared time, for it makes me fear and tremble for myself when I see such men fall. Bro. Amasa [Lyman], Bro. [Henry] Sherwood and others were in San Francisco only a few hours before Bro. McBride arrived, and had sailed; they had waited several days, having heard that he was coming on the Boston, when she arrived without him they concluded it best to leave. Bro. Amasa thought that if the Book of Mormon was all that had to be printed, that the press had better be set up at San Bernardino, and have it printed there. Bro. McBride when he got there, got Bro. [John M.] Horner, Capt. [Jefferson] Hunt, &c., together, and talked the matter over, and they came to the conclusion that it was best for the press to come to the islands. Bro. Horner was very busy, and had suggested Mr. [William] Pickett & Mr. Bates to accompany Bro. McB. to make inquiries in regard to the press &c. In consequence of not being able to purchase what they wished, they concluded it best to send to Boston for them. This news is what I have been anxiously looking for, for some time, as I have felt that if the press could not be procured at San Francisco, it would not be wisdom for me to wait until it could be brought from the east. This also appears to be the feelings of the brethren, and according to present appearances it is altogether likely that we will return together after July conference.

Times are hard in San Francisco; Bro. Amasa has been up trying to raise means from Bro. Horner to help pay for the ranch at San Bernardino, and the saints there were exerting themselves to the utmost to pay off all the liabilities. Bro. McBride was ill treated on the passage by the Capt; his health was not very good. The brethren, Namakaiona and four others, brought a boat over [from Molokai] for Bro. H. & me.

21 March 1854 • Tuesday

Arose before day this morning to sail to Molokai. Rowed out of Lahaina until we got around the point at Kaanapali, when we hoisted our sail and struck across the channel. I felt to pray for a favorable time; and we had it. I was not any sick; we arrived about 9 o’clock, and met Bros. [Reddin A.] Allred & Maiola on the beach, and a large crowd of native brethren and sisters; they appeared glad to see us. Bro. A. accompanied us to Waialua, where Bros. Woodbury and Green were residing, in a house built by the saints for their accommodation; they were well, with the exception of Br. W., who had a cold on his lungs. Went up the creek and had an excellent bath. In afternoon held meeting, Bro. Woodbury called upon me to speak. I gave them an account of my labors among the different branches on the other islands and was blessed with the spirit of the Lord.13

22 March 1854 • Wednesday

Attended morning meeting this morning, Bro. Hammond preached. I was quite unwell to-day had quite a severe cold, the brethren administered to me once or twice and promised me health and the spirit to preach to the people during this conference. In the afternoon I preached followed by Bros. Hammond and Allred.

23 March 1854 • Thursday

Meeting this morning, Bros. Kapono and Maiola preached this morning. At 10 o’clock conference met, and after singing and prayer, Bro. Woodbury was sustained on motion of Bro. Hammond, as Pres. of this island. Bros. Lewis, Tanner and Karren were also sustained in their offices. Pres. B. Young, H. C. Kimball, & W. Richards were sustained on motion, as presidents of the church throughout all the world. Bro. Halelo was chosen as Clerk of the conference. Bro. Woodbury then made some remarks explanatory of the nature of the conference and the business that had to be transacted. The branches [four in number] were then represented by the elders, 2 Seventies, 4 elders, 12 priests, 9 teachers, 10 deacons, 155 members, all in good standing, about 50 baptized since last conference [October 1853]. After the representations were through I arose and spoke on the priesthood and on the power of God entrusted to man, that in old times when the priesthood was entrusted unto man on the earth, their word was the word of the Lord unto the people, and it is equally valid with the written word, for it was written by men who were in all things like unto us as far as passions &c. <were concerned> but being filled with the Holy Ghost and being possessors of the Holy Priesthood, they were as Gods unto the people in their different dispensations, and they had to be obeyed or the Lord would visit them people in his vengeance.

In the afternoon, after the conference was opened by singing and prayer I then continued the same subject, showing from the prophecies that a messenger or prophet had to come before the second coming of the Lord, and also pointing out to them the power that was vested in them, showing that although Noah was and his sons were the only ones of that generation that believed the message of the Lord, yet they were overwhelmed with utter destruction, altho’ there were thousands of them who opposed, on account of their unbelief. I said you will <have> to get rid of the mistaken notion so very prevalent about this church not requiring money or help, and that you are not required to launch out your means in this church, for your are sure to be tried in these things, if you stay in the church of God. If you do not love this work and this church for the love you have to the Lord and His truth, but have joined because you think it is so very easy and fine, you had better seek to obtain this very necessary faith and love, for the words of the Savior are very definite on this subject, that whoever cannot make every sacrifice, money, houses, lands, wives, children, and relatives of every kind, and even his own life, cannot be a disciple of his. I told them that we had had to make sacrifices of all these things, and they would have to do likewise. I impressed upon them the necessity of obedience to the priesthood under all circumstances, and showing the necessity consequence of disobedience. I was filled to overflowing with the spirit while speaking on these principles, and it rested mightily on the people, and although weak in body and my lungs affected somewhat, yet I was swallowed up completely in joy and carried away, as it were, in the spirit so as to lose all sense of bodily weakness. Bro. Hammond bore testimony to what had been said and was blessed. Bro. Kapono also spoke. Conference was then adjourned, and all returned rejoicing and filled with the spirit.14 We had two weddings to-day, one a little, blind old man <to an elderly woman,> and the other Bro. Kahiki to one of the sisters [Kaauamonui].15 The brethren administered to me again.

24 March 1854 • Friday

Attending morning meeting, Bros. Kahakauila and Namakaiona preached; Bro. R. A. Allred followed, correcting Bro. N. <in> some remarks that he had made.16 When conference convened at 10 o’clock, after opening meeting Bro. Hammond spoke on the subject of the gathering and was blessed. Bro. Reddin A. Allred followed and spoke on the subject of cleanliness; and was followed by Bro. Hammond on the same subject. I also made some remarks on the great importance of this work to them as a people, and the necessity there was for them to stir themselves, and seek to improve, that the word of the Lord might be fulfilled.17 In afternoon the native officers were appointed to their different fields and after this was disposed of Bro. W. gave me the privilege of speaking. I read an epistle that Bro. Napela had written to the saints here, exhorting them to diligence and to steadfastness and not to be deceived, and also telling them that it was necessary for them to assist in bearing off the press, by advancing what they could in the shape of money &c. It was an excellent palapala, and filled with good instruction. I then spoke on the press and the object of it, and then brought forward proofs from the scriptures and from reason to show that there must necessarily be such a book as the Book of Mormon, or the Bible would fail and be unfulfilled. I was blessed with an excellent flow of the spirit in speaking and in proving and reasoning upon these things to them, but the people did not seem to enjoy as much of it as I have seen them.18

25 March 1854 • Saturday

At morning meeting Bro. Kapono spoke and I followed.19 Went and <had> a good shower bath under a small waterfall up the valley.

26 March 1854 • Sunday

Bro. Woodbury and I spoke attended morning meeting, I he spoke and he followed on the sacrament &c. At 10 o’clock we held public meeting and Bro. Woodbury called upon me to speak, I spoke on the gathering, telling them of the signs of the coming of the Savior that were being fulfilled around us—war, rumors of wars, pestilence and famine—and of the provision that the Lord had made for the salvation of His saints and that in order to fulfill the prophecies there must be a place of gathering and the people must gather together, &c.20 Bro. Woodbury followed on the same subject and was blessed with the spirit, and also was followed by Bro. Hammond who was also blessed. I then followed, and was blessed and spoke plainly on the subject of partaking of the sacrament unworthily, testifying in the name of Jesus that whoever will partake of it unworthily, should not escape the punishment of the Almighty. I baptized a woman during intermission.

In afternoon Bro. Reddin spoke and I followed telling them that it was quite probable that this would be our last meeting on this island, as the time was drawing nigh for us to return, exhorting them to stand fast under all circumstances and not to part on any account with the truth they had received, no matter what others done or what others said, it ought to have no effect on them, but they ought to be built upon the rock and not swerve or deviate in the least from the gospel that had been taught them. I gave them a short sketch of the difficulties that we had to commence <contend> with in commencing the work on these lands, and of the sacrifices we had made to bring this gospel to them; and set before them the necessity of putting away the foolish notion of setting their hearts on riches and the things of this world, and thinking that they could get their salvation without any exertion on their part. I told them this was a subject that I wished to see them understand, and as I was about going to leave I felt to impress it upon them, for I knew that they must attend to these things if they ever expected to attain unto life everlasting. I said, I am thinking of leaving these lands soon, but I have not at present a dollar in my pocket, but I know that if you have received the truth in good and honest hearts that I will not return destitute, but you will feel to assist us to what is necessary for us to have. I spoke on these and other subjects, bearing a strong testimony to the truth of this work to them; I felt the spirit much, myself, but I thought that the people did not seem to have so much nor did they seem to appreciate the principles that were taught.21

Bro. Hammond followed on the same subject and was blessed with the spirit and spoke well. Bro. Woodbury also spoke by the spirit, teaching them to observe these things, and telling them by the spirit of phrophecy that if they would assist in these things, they should be blessed. Attended to the Sacrament. Conference adjourned sine die.

Held officer meeting directly after the adjournment, I spoke to them on the importance of magnifying their priesthoods, and the great importance of it, telling them that life and death was now placed before them, and they had their choice to choose which they pleased, but they might rest assured that unless they did believe our words that destruction was close upon them, and they would be swept off as sure as the Lord lived. Your fathers brought the red skin upon them in consequence of disobedience to the very priesthood which you have now in your midst, if you pay attention to it, it will exalt you, and through it this curse will be rolled off from you. In giving receiving money for the press, I was somewhat surprised, all that I received to-day was $1 towards to [the] press, given by an old brother [Keliiholokauai]. Bro. Hammond spoke on this subject with power, showing that the works are the fruit of faith, and that it is by our works that the extent of our faith is known. Bro. Woodbury also spoke.

We had difficulty in raising a boat and men to take th us back, the brethren did not seem to manifest the spirit they ought to on the subject, and we had to lecture <them> sharply on these things. The brethren I trust will be benefitted by what has been taught, there has been a good deal of good doctrine but quite strong for this people, but it is time that they begin to understand these things. The brother with whom we lived, Kananauli, deserves to be honorably mentioned for his kindness to us; he is very industrious indeed, and, although poor, kept us well supplied with fish, &c., &c. May the Lord bless him for his kindness.22

27 March 1854 • Monday

Attended morning meeting. I spoke.23 Variously engaged; wrote a letter in evening to the brethren on Hawaii telling them the news and also telling Bro. Keeler that I thought he had better exert himself and try & get all he could from the saints to help him off to the mountains.

28 March 1854 • Tuesday

Attended morning meeting, I preached on the feelings that we ought to cultivate now that we were in the Kingdom of God—that we ought to forget that <we> were anything but citizens of the Kingdom of God that all our feelings, hopes and affections ought to be centred in Zion, not the sectarian Zion that they pretend is in their hearts, but the real Zion spoke of by the prophets whose locality and situation they have described; and we ought to feel that it is our all, and if it prospers we will prosper, and if anything happens to any part of the church we ought to feel & sympathize with it. Wrote to Bros. Hy. W. Bigler & Bro. Hawkins, one to Bros. Johnson & Lewis, one to Bro. Farrer24 & commenced one to Bro. Joseph Cain, in the valley. My letters to Bros. Farrer, Bigler and Hawkins contained my feelings in regard to the course that suggested itself to my mind as being wisdom for them and me to pursue to gather all the means we could to help us off. The one I wrote to Bros. Lewis & Johnson contained my feelings in regard to pursuing a cautious course in expending means and in incurring expense, and also informing them of my feelings in liquidating Haalelea’s debt as speedily as possible. We were anxious to cross the channel this morning but the wind increased to a gale from the south & we could not cross.25

29 March 1854 • Wednesday

The wind died out through the night but after sunrise it blew from the S. W., a wind not favorable for crossing, we, nevertheless, concluded to try it, although told by the natives that it was impracticable and that we would have to turn back. We embarked, Bros. [Ephraim] Green, R. [Reddin] A. Allred, [Francis] Hammond, [John] Woodbury and myself, with five <native> passengers and two men to ret as a crew, upon the a whale boat, an old shaky concern that groaned and cracked every sea that she met with, in a manner anything but pleasant to a timid person, especially crossing this channel, the most dangerous about this group. The crew, with two of the passengers, shipped the oars, Bro. Hammond taking charge of the steering oar,—and pulled for some distance to the windward after which we hoisted sail and shaped our course for Lahaina, by keeping close on the wind we were enabled to make it, or very nearly so, when the oars were again shipped and we were carried along by an ash breeze the remainder of the distance—about a mile and a half perhaps. Bros. Woodbury, Green and Allred, and myself, were sea sick.—Bros. G. & W. very much so—I held out pretty well for a while, until they were <all> hard at work emptying their stomachs, and I felt to symp<a>thize so much with them that I could not refrain from doing like wise. Our positions were rather painful, having to sit cramped up, the boat being so small. When we were crossing the reef we narrowly escaped being swamped by the breakers, which were running very strong and high, a boat that was alongside of us, going out, was filled and the crew had all to jump out into the water—she was not near as heavily laden as our boat; we barely escaped, the water at one time boiled very rapidly and strong over our gunwales, making it appear for a few minutes as though we could not possibly escape; the natives’ eyes stuck right out. The Lord be praised for his kindness in preserving us from the dangers of the deep, and landing us in safety, according to our prayers.

We landed about 1 o’clock p.m. found all well. There was a letter from Bro. Albion Burnham for me, and also a long letter from Bro. Wm. [William] Farrer, directed to several of us, containing news about the condition of the work on Kauai, &c., increasing in some branches, in others not wearing a favorable aspect; Bro. [J. W. H.] Kauwahi is in prison, having been taken up by the orders of Judge [William] Lee on a charge of bigamy, and tried by a district judge and laid over to be tried by jury next Feb. (1855) Lee says that he (Kauwahi) has never been divorced by him and that [h]is other wife is still living. Bro. K. says, he has the papers on Oahu to prove that he has been divorced. Bro. Burnham offered himself as bail but they would not take him, $1000 being the amount of bail and to be given by one holding $2000 of unencumbered property. It is very apparent from all the circumstances connected with this, that it is done with the intention of injuring the work of the Lord, and to destroy Bro. K’s influence, which they fear. Although married to his second wife since last August, they have done nothing in regard to the matter until a day before the election of representative in the Koloa district, the representative elect, [James] Marshall, having resigned—it was exceedingly probably [sic] that Bro. Kauwahi would be elected, and to prevent this they pounced upon him, thus rendering making him ineligible. This might have been tried in <the> Feby. sessions of this year had they so wished it, but that would not have suited them, the longer they can keep him in duresse <durance> [confinement] the better they would like it.26 How glorious the consolation in reflecting that they can do nothing against the truth, but for it. The poor wretches have to do something or they could not be punished nor the scriptures be fulfilled. Grant Heavenly Father that thy people may be strengthened and delivered and that our faith may continually increase, and that all those who are seeking to stop the progress of thy work, even the enemies of truth, may be confounded and thy hand be upon them. Attended meeting in afternoon and preached followed by the other brethren.

30 March 1854 • Thursday

Attended early morning meeting, preached followed by Bro. Woodbury & Bro. Hammond.27 After breakfast we went to see a lawyer, Kaumaea, in regard to the case of a sister on Molokai who had been divorced illegally; he was acquainted with the affair and as Bro. Woodbury and I wished to get all the information we could on the subject we called on him. We found Kamakau, the Circuit Judge and the same person with whom I had a long conversation when Bro. Hammond and I commenced to preach in Wailuku. Our conversation was on indifferent subjects for awhile—the annexation of the islands, the decrease of the natives, &c., &c.—when we were about to depart he alluded to the Book of Mormon, wishing to peruse it, the novel &c. speaking in rather a ridiculing tone. I told him, if that was his idea of the Book of Mormon, it was a wrong one and he would be disappointed. He made some remarks about it being written for amusement &c., when I told him that there28 was more evidence to support the Book of Mormon than there was the Bible, & I desired him to give me his reasons for believing the Bible and I would give him mine for believing the Book of Mormon. He appeared to be surprised to think that I should think that the weight of evidence was in favor of the Book of Mormon, and wished to be excused, apparently, from giving me his reasons for believing the Bible, dodging it by flying to the Book of Mormon, but as I pressed him he attempted to give us his reasons, which were: that it contained the account of the miracles of Jesus and all his history, it was written by the disciples of Jesus, eye witnesses of all these things, and had been handed down and preserved by wise men generation after generation until the present time, that all the Christian nations, the wise and the civilized, all believed it and joined in supporting its veracity. I told him that a Mahommedan [Muslim] could advance equally as strong proof in favor of the Koran, &c., &c. On these points we had a good deal of talk. He then pressed me for my proofs in favor of the Book of Mormon; I told him that in the first place we had the testimony of eleven living eye-witnesses, who solemnly declare and testify before the Lord, men and angels that they have seen and handled the plates upon which the Book was written, that three of them declare that these things were shown unto them and the Book declared to be true by an holy angel from heaven;29 secondly, we had the testimony of the Bible in favor of it, and also the testimony of thousands who solemnly declare that they know through the spirit of the Lord that it is true, I also, myself, testify that it is true and that I know it for myself, &c., &c. When he heard this, the spirit of the Evil one seemed to take more full possession of him, and he said they were liars; <&c.,> and commenced a tirade of abuse and insult misapplying scripture and using very irrating <irritating> language. I expostulated with him and finding that he would not listen to reason, I told him that henceforth he was a stranger to me as he had rejected the truth and would rather have a lie than the truth. We left, and I felt about like what I would if I had had a fight with a skunk—he had rejected the truth and had insulted and ill treated Bros. [James] Keeler and [James] Hawkins and they had done as commanded in such cases, and when we commenced I felt that it was useless and would be wrong to talk but I got drawn in so gradually that I forgot to listen to the suggestions of the spirit. Bro. Woodbury, Bro. <R. A. Allred>, and I afterwards went and had a conversation with the Governor of this island and Molokai, Nahaolelua, about taxing the <native> elders, and getting a divorce &c. for two of our sisters—he had no power to grant them the privilege of marrying again. The laws of this kingdom are ridiculous and well calculated to increase licentiousness and sin and is one great cause, in my opinion, of the decrease of the nation &c. He treated us very gentlemanly.30 Bros. Green, Allred & Woodbury started on horseback for Wailuku this afternoon.

31 March 1854 • Friday

Attended morning meeting and spoke. Variously engaged. Attended Court and acted in place of Bro. Hammond, as interpreter.


  1. [1]Cannon originally wrote this date as February 29 but changed it to March 1.

  2. [2]Cannon wrote the date for both this entry and the next one as March 9, 1854.

  3. [3]Bigler noted that “altho the weather was stormy there was a good turnout, it seemed to rain all around except where we were” (Bigler journal, LDS ledger, Mar. 12, 1854). Cannon later told Hammond that the weather was “bad and rainy but held up always during the hours of conference, or of their meetings” (Hammond journal, Mar. 16, 1854).

  4. [4]Bigler recorded additional details about the conference: “There were about 125 new member[s] represented that had joined the Church since our last conference, there were represented to be 603 live members in this Conference, a great many have died during the last 6 months with small pox. We ordained 1 Elder, 4 Priests, 3 Deacons and 2 Teachers. At candlelighting Elder Cannon preached on the duty of the different officers in the Church and truly we had a good meeting. Elder Cannon is a powerful speaker and the power of God attends his preaching” (Bigler journal, LDS ledger, Mar. 13, 1854).

  5. [5]An ‘aho is a horizontal support used to create a roof.

  6. [6]Cannon’s letter to Young has been included as Appendix 2, Item 22.

  7. [7]Cannon and Francis Hammond sat up late “talking about the affairs of the mission” (Hammond journal, Mar. 17, 1854).

  8. [8]Woodbury made mention of Cannon’s letter in his diary: “We learned that the boat had arrived and went down to the landing to see if Elder Cannon had arived. he had not come over; but sent a line informing us that he was in Lahaina but did not feel able to come, not having recovered from his seasickness comeing up from Honolulu, and requested me to send over a boat on Monday next for him” (Woodbury diary, Mar. 18, 1854).

  9. [9]This sentence was squeezed into a small space, making it appear to be a later insertion. Bigler reported that Tanner “thinks he will be back by our July Conference which will come off on the 24th so that the Elders who may be released may have a vessel of our own to emigrate the Saints to California, and some to our homes in the vallies of the mountains etc” (Bigler journal, LDS ledger, Mar. 18, 1854). Tanner took with him a letter of introduction that included a reference to the five original missionaries. See Appendix 2, Item 23.

  10. [10]Cannon preached from “Jer. [Jeremiah] 16 not a very full attendance. No english meeting” (Hammond journal, Mar. 19, 1854).

  11. [11]The previous fall Hammond had been offered the position of court interpreter but told the judge, “I could not be bound for I was not my own man, but when I was here I would act for him” (Hammond journal, Sept. 29, 1853). Cannon attended court so that Hammond could finish a pair of shoes before they left for Moloka‘i (Hammond journal, Mar. 20, 1854).

  12. [12]Spirit rappers were spiritualists who believed that the dead communicated with them by means of rapping or knocking. In 1848 two adolescent sisters living near Rochester, New York, Margaret and Kate Fox, first heard mysterious tappings and claimed they were messages from departed spirits. Within a few years spirit rapping was widespread in the United States. While Pratt and Grouard were residing at San Bernardino in 1853, spiritualism manifested itself in the community (Lyman, San Bernardino, 117–19). Although Grouard was heavily involved in spiritualism by 1856, available records suggest he had ties to Mormonism through at least October 1854, when Church leaders in San Bernardino called him on a mission to Los Angeles and El Monte (“Minutes,” Deseret News, Apr. 18, 1855; Ellsworth, History of Louisa Barnes Pratt, 225). Although one history proclaims that Pratt eventually was “won over by the Spiritualists” (Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 3:699), the editor of his journals could find no evidence supporting the claim (Ellsworth, Journals of Addison Pratt, 561–62). In October 1853, Pratt and Grouard were called on missions to French Polynesia, but they were unable to raise the needed funds to go on the mission (Ellsworth, Journals of Addison Pratt, 506; Ellsworth, History of Louisa Barnes Pratt, 212–15).

  13. [13]Hammond left a parallel account of the day’s events:

    “At daylight Bro. Cannon and I embarked on board of a Whale boat. . . . Bro. Cannon was preserved from sea-sickness, an unusual thing for him, but our prayers were heard and we felt to bless and praise the Lord for his kindness. . . . The brethren and Sisters were waiting on the beach to receive us. they were glad to see us, and expressed their love by shakeing us cordialy by the hand and saying ‘aloha nui loa’ [an emphatic ‘hello’ literally translated as ‘much greetings of love’]. The landing being a little bad the boat could not land, so the natives offered to take us on their backs and carry us on shore, so we got each of us on the back of a native. . . .

    “At 5 o’clock we held meeting in the house which the native brethren have built at this place, it is a fine little grass house, will hold about 200 persons. Bro. Cannon preached, told the saints of his experience which he has passed through since last conference, the Islands he has visited, the saints and branches which he has met with, how the[y] blessed him in assisting him to [do] the things which he needed &c. . . . Bro. C. has a cold” (Hammond journal, Mar. 21, 1854).

  14. [14]The portions of Cannon’s journal and Woodbury’s diary entry for the day reporting the conference are almost identical, except for Cannon’s first-person references to himself in noting his sermon.

  15. [15]Hammond also wrote about the marriages: “During the intermission Pres. W. married the blind trumpeter to an old woman, the trumpeter is a little old man about 40 years of age. We call him ‘Zion’[s] trumpeter.’ . . . In the evening we had another wedding. Bro. Kahiko was married to sister Kaauamonui, after the ceremoney they kissed each other, which caused a good deal of mirth and a number of jokes were passed at their expense” (Hammond journal, Mar. 23, 1854).

  16. [16]Woodbury reported that Allred “corrected some of the remarks of Namakaiona concerning the 14 verse of the 9 chapter of Isaih speaking of the head and tail of Isreal Israel [sic]. The Calvinists call themselves the head and the Mormons the tail but by so doing they envolved themselves in difficulty for Isiah said in the verse before that the Lord would distrory both the head and tail in one day, thus they trap themselfes in their own snare” (Woodbury diary, Mar. 23, 1854).

  17. [17]Hammond provided an overview of the sermons. Reddin Allred “taught them that it was good for them to observe the law of cleanliness, and commence to pattern after the whites in regard to that law, that they should strive to keep themselves free from lice, fleas, &c, and to keep their heads combed and their faces clean, and their clothes whole &c. &c.

    “This being a subject that we all felt interested, I followed on the same subject. . . . I told them that the first time I saw the natives of these lands I loved them and that I had not lost my affection for them yet, that is as regarded their form, or compl[e]xion, but I could not say that I loved their dirty, filthy habits, and as we had come here to teach them the way of life and salvation and that we desired to see them leave their old customs and habits, and commence to ascend the ‘hill,’ I cited them to their own chiefs, how they lived, and how free they were from ‘lice, fleas’ &c and that the cause of it was they lived clean in their houses, and persons. I also told them to turn their dogs out of doors and clean their houses, and set the beasts in their own places, and not live with and have them in their houses. I also told them that they never would have visits from angels so long as they live in their filthy state, but in order for them to ever become a people whom the Lord would delight to own and bless they must obey all the laws of God taught through his servants. . . .

    “Bro. Cannon then spoke a short time on the same principles” (Hammond journal, Mar. 24, 1854).

  18. [18]Hammond noted of the afternoon meeting:

    “[Cannon] preached a very interesting discourse on the coming forth of the ‘book of Mormon,’ the setting up of the Kingdom of God anew on the earth in this dispensation. he also gave an interesting sketch of the history of the aborigines of Amarica, showing that they and the people of the ‘Pacific Isles’ were of the seed of Joseph; he read the blessing of Jacob on the head of Joseph from the 49 of Gen. also Moses blessing on the head [of] Joseph see Deut 33. The Spiret was present and bore testimoney to the truth. I never heard the subject handled better in the native tongue, my heart was filled with joy and I had some butiful views of the subject more so than I ever had before. Bro. C. has a great command of this language, and is a powerful speaker when the Spirit of the Lord rest[s] upon him, the native saints almost worship him, he has succeeded in gaining the affections of all the saints, and a large circle of friends out side of the church many of them of the first class native. I feel to dread the time when he and the other old elders shall leave for home” (Hammond journal, Mar. 24, 1854).

    Cannon’s and Woodbury’s accounts of the day’s conference are similar, the main difference being that Cannon refers to himself in the first person.

  19. [19]Cannon preached on “the subject of the sectarian Priests taking the priesthood without any authority &c” (Hammond journal, Mar. 25, 1854).

  20. [20]Hammond reported that Cannon “preached on the gethering from Is. 2.2–5. He had a good flow of the spiret and spoke well for a little while, showing the necessity of the gethering in order for salvation in these days; the spirit seemed to leave him and he set down” (Hammond journal, Mar. 26, 1854).

  21. [21]Cannon also “spoke upon the subject of gethering means for the press, that it was a subject which had caused his visit to this Island and that the brethren would not loose any thing by subscribing liberly for the press” (Hammond journal, Mar. 26, 1854).

  22. [22]Hammond reported that during the general meeting Cannon

    “Called on the branch for a boat and four men to take us to Lahaina, but none offered themselves. Bro. C. then motioned that the conference be adjourned ‘Sine die’ I second the motion. Bro. Cannon then dissmissed the conference, with a call to all the officers to meet directly after the meeting was dismissed. Commenced the officers meeting after calling upon those who were prepaired to come forward and hand in what they had for the press; one old man, gray headed, gave in one dollar, his name is Keliiholokauai this was all that was handed in. Bro. Cannon spoke then to the officers teaching them concerning their duty, and exhorting them to stand fast in the faith he spoke by the spirit and power of God and the spirit bore testimoney.

    “I followed at some length on the principle of the officers always being at the head in all good works. I told them that by their works their faith would be known, and that that old brother who had given the dollar had exhibited his faith more than all the rest of the officers, he and the brother who was keeping us had manifested more faith than all the rest put together. Kananaule is our hosts name, he is the hardest worker I ever saw among the natives.

    “. . . The Saints of Molokai have had their faith very much tride during this conference, about begging for money, they had got the idea that this was a church that did not require money &c. so it comes rather hard to them” (Hammond journal, Mar. 26, 1854).

    Cannon’s and Woodbury’s entries for the day are nearly identical word for word, the difference being their use of first- and third-person language.

  23. [23]“Cannon spoke to the saints about coming to the house of God to worship when their hearts are upon some other thing; but to keep in mind the object of their meeting together, and always keep the spirit in their hearts. He also spoke a little on the causes of the troubles which afflict mankind, said he rejoiced that the law of death was passed upon mankind. He said he could not speak as he wanted, the spirit was very powerfully felt” (Hammond journal, Mar. [27], 1854).

  24. [24]See Appendix 2, Item 24.

  25. [25]Reddin Allred reported that the previous evening the missionaries had “retired about ten o clock, calculating to get up about four o clock in the morning, so as to get an early start, if the wind (which was blowing gently from the south) did not prevent; it being a contrary wind” (Reddin Allred journal, n.d.). Hammond noted: “About 3 o’clock a.m. we all arose thinking to start for Lahaina but the wind being ahead we dare not start; so we laid down again till daylight. Bro. Cannon attended meeting very few out” (Hammond journal, Mar. 28, 1854).

  26. [26]This was actually the second time in the space of a few days that Kauwahi had been arrested on the same charge. Judge Lee had previously released him for lack of evidence; then the judge denied having granted the divorce and ordered him rearrested while Kauwahi was traveling to “Honolulu to get the bill of divorce divorcing him & his first wife with some other correspondence with judge Lee concerning the matter & to accompany elder Cannon in a tour among the Branches of the church according to a request of him & the Prest. [Lewis]” (Farrer diary, Mar. 12, 1854). Burnham immediately offered to raise bail, but his property was valued at less than the total needed. Kauwahi’s imprisonment was also used as a reason to have him removed from his position as road supervisor. Concerning his removal, Farrer related, “I heard at Waimea that the majority of the people did not want him out, that it was only Mr [Rev. George] Roswell & a few others” (Farrer diary, Mar. 30, 1854). By the middle of April, Kauwahi’s bill of divorce had been sent to Kaua‘i (Farrer diary, Apr. 15, 1854). Two more weeks would pass, however, before he was released, and then only after Elders Lewis and Johnson posted bail (Lewis journal, Apr. 16, 1854; Farrer diary, May 3, 1854). While in prison, Kauwahi wrote “several interesting letters to the diferant branches of the Church” (Tanner journal, Mar. 27, 1854). Such an effort was welcomed as “some of the Brethren are kanalua [hesitant] about the work on account of Bro Kauwahi s confinement & the persecution they meet with” (Farrer diary, Apr. 18, 1854). Simpson Molen attended the February 1855 trial at which Kauwahi was convicted of bigamy. Molen noted of the proceedings: “It is very plain that judge Lee was prejudiced against Kauwahi and the Mormons. particular enquirey was made if there were any mormons on the jury, one was found and of course rejected. and what was more singular Kauwahi could not get any of his witnesses subpeonaed in time” (Molen journal, Feb. 16, 1855).

  27. [27]Cannon used “Mat. 13.44 &c.” as the text for his sermon (Hammond journal, Mar. 30, 1854).

  28. [28]Written over that.

  29. [29]Three men—Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris—reported being shown the gold plates by an angel named Moroni. The Prophet Joseph Smith showed the plates to eight additional witnesses: Christian Whitmer, Jacob Whitmer, Peter Whitmer Jr., John Whitmer, Hiram Page, Joseph Smith Sr., Hyrum Smith, and Samuel H. Smith. The testimonies of these eleven witnesses have been published in every copy of the Book of Mormon. Studies of these witnesses and their testimonies include Anderson, Investigating the Book of Mormon Witnesses; Backman, Eyewitness Accounts of the Restoration, 131–68; Cook, David Whitmer Interviews; Richard Lloyd Anderson, “Book of Mormon Witnesses,” in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 1:214–16; Anderson, “Personal Writings.”

  30. [30]The governor’s response to the request to free native elders from paying taxes was similar to what Cannon was told at Honolulu. “He said a few might be acquited if they labored all of the time in the ministry; he said for us to hand in the names of those that we want to labor this year and then there would be no misunderstanding; but for the past year, they must all pay their taxes” (Reddin Allred journal, Mar. 30, 1854). Woodbury recorded additional details regarding the divorce issue: “Went in company with Bro Cannon to see the Govenir, to get him to interfear in behalf of a couple of the Sisters on Molokai, who had been unjustly fined, one of them had been devorsed by her husband, and was forbiden to mary before the expiration of 4 years. . . . Some of their laws are very inconsistent. I hope the thing will be straightened and that they will be released as they are good people and desire to do right” (Woodbury diary, Mar. 30, 1854). Hammond also sought redress for a sister whose “husband had been away from her 4 years, but the law demands 5 years away without rendering any assistance then they are entitled to a bill of divorce. So she had to wait one year longer” (Hammond journal, May 10, 1854).