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October 1853

1 October 18531 • Saturday

Variously engaged, writing &c. Administered to a sister who had just been delivered of a fine girl. Held meeting in afternoon—the brethren spoke and I followed—we had a good meeting.

2 October 1853 • Sunday

Attended Bible Class this morning and afterwards held public meeting—Bro. Woodbury spoke and had the spirit & I followed and was followed by Bro. R. N. Allred who closed the meeting with a few remarks.2 In afternoon had an excellent meeting—all the brethren spoke.

3 October 1853 • Monday

Writing &c. Bros. Mc Bride, Hawkins, Keeler and R. A. Allred arrived in tolerable good health—The brethren from Oahu are coming round by Kahului on a vessel also Bro. Hammond.3 Bro. Green is still unwell.

4 October 1853 • Tuesday

Sent down horses to meet the brethren; Bros. Lewis, Tanner, Johnson, Karren, Bigler [Edward] Dennis[,] Hammond and wife—they all came up in company with Bro. John Winchester from Makawao. I was glad to meet with the brethren all in the enjoyment of good health; it was a meeting long expected and much desired by me. After eating we went down to bathe and had a good time. We had a very pleasant time & spent the evening very agreeably indeed, in relating our feelings to each other and in dilating on the prospects of the work.4

5 October 1853 • Wednesday

We met together this morning in council meeting to canvass the subjects to be presented and acted upon by the conference. The press was the first thing taken into consideration, whether we ought to have the Book of Mormon printed by hiring or whether we should purchase a press of our own and publish it and the other works necessary for the instruction of the saints. The subject was thoroughly discussed, all spoke on the subject—some objected on the grounds that if the press was bought we would have <to> stay & take charge of it, and they did not feel to keep us here against our will. I was then called upon to state my feelings; I said that for my own part I did not consider that my mission was fully filled until I saw the Book of Mormon in press if there was a prospect of it being done in a reasonable time and I did not want them to let this have sufficient <weight> to deter them from doing what they thought wisdom demanded. It was thought best to buy a press and material; it was agreed upon by the council to select a committee of three to adopt measures for procuring a press by subscription &c.

We also conversed on the subject of seeking a location for the settlement of the saints in accordance with the letter of Bro. Brigham [Young] to Bro. [Philip] Lewis and self. Bro. H. [Francis Hammond] made a statement in regard to a place [Palawai Basin] which he had discovered on the island of Lanai [Lana‘i], a place which he thought might answer the desired end & be made suitable for the gathering of the people.5 It was resolved to choose a committee of five for the purpose, to select a suitable place for this object.

We then had some discussion in regard to the purchase of a vessel for conveying produce from island to island and also for the conveyance of the elders, and to be used, in case a place of gathering should be found, for the removal of the saints. After canvassing the subject thoroughly it was thought best to let the matter rest at present, it not being the suitable time to carry such an operation into effect.6

6 October 18537 • Thursday

This morning the anniversary of the semi-annual conferences of the church was hailed by us with joy;8 it was a beautiful morning and we felt to rejoice that we were privileged in meeting together and in counselling in regard to the things of the kingdom, in beholding each other’s faces for this is <a> treat that can only be appreciated by those who have been cast as it were alone among strangers whose sympathies very few of them were in consonance with our own, this made our reunion doubly delightful.

We were all well with the exception of Bros. Ephraim Green and Reddin A. Allred, the former was recovering from an attack of the Panama fever and the latter had been attacked with it a few days ago, this dampened our pleasure somewhat, but as there was no particular danger attending an attack of this kind, we felt under no apprehensions on their account. The Natives saints mustered strong; we had taken out one end of the meeting house and built a bowery at the end in order that all might be accom[m]odated with seats and that all might hear—we moved the stand to suit the new arrangements.

It was fast day and they met together and enjoyed the spirit in praying & in strengthening each other and according to their account they were much blessed with the spirit of teaching.

Our conference was opened by singing and prayer. Present one High Priest, sixteen Seventies, three Elders and one Priest. Bro. Lewis made a few prefatory remarks on the progress of the work on these lands and on ant other lands and of the prospects before us, which were in the highest degree cheering. Before these remarks were made Bro. John E. B. Winchester was chosen clerk. On motion of Elder [Nathan] Tanner Pres. Lewis was sustained in his office who next presented his counsellors, Elders Tanner and [Thomas] Karren, who were also sustained in their offices. The branches were then represented as follows:

No. of


By whom








Cut off

Baptised since




Geo. Cannon











Jas. Hawkins










Jas. Keeler











F. A. Hammond









R. A. Allred








J. S. Woodbury









R. N. Allred










Hy. W. Bigler











Wm. Farrer











N. Tanner











B. F. Johnson

1 High Priest





P. B. Lewis










1 [High Priest]







and a statement was made by all the elders in relation to the situation and prospects of the different branches—which was very cheering.10

The business next taken into consideration was the subjects that we had canvassed yesterday. It was motioned and carried that a press and material be purchased at the earliest date, and that a committee of three be appointed to transact all business relative to raising means and procuring said press and that said committee be authorized to choose such fields of operations and auxiliaries to aid them in accomplishing this object as they deem necessary. I was appointed in conjunction with Elders [Benjamin F.] Johnson & Lewis as said committee, and that it was calculated that we would make a circuit of the islands to accomplish the object in view, either individually or collectively.11 The following brethren: [Francis] Hammond, [Edward] Dennis, Johnson, Tanner and [William] Mc Bride were chosen as a committee to select a place suitable for the gathering of the saints and report by circular the result of their labors. We counselled together in relation to our grievances in school matters and on motion Bros. Johnson, Cannon & Tanner were appointed a committee to draft a memorial to the proper authorities setting forth our grievances in regard to this matter.12 The next business before us was the appointment of the elders to their different fields of labor, Bro. Tanner was appointed to preside over Hawaii [Hawai‘i]. It was thought best, as I was appointed to collect means for the press and travel thro’ the different conferences and branches to effect this, that I be released from the duties of presiding over the Maui conference. The brethren called upon me to nominate my successor, this was a thing that I had not been expecting and I demurred saying, that I thought it was the place of the presidency to make such nominations; but they pressed it upon me. I felt to pray to the Lord for wisdom and the direction of His Holy Spirit, for I had no idea, not the least, who I should nominate; I felt impressed very much to nominate Bro. Redick [Reddick] N. Allred, not that I had any prepossessions in favor of this as I th had thought that it would <fall> to <the> lot of some other one to nominate, and therefore I made it without fear <of giving offence> or division of feeling on the subject. Bro. Hy. [Henry] W. Bigler was appointed to preside over Oahu [O‘ahu]. Elder Wm. [William] Farrer to preside over Kauai [Kaua‘i]. It was motioned and carried that Molokai be a seperate conference, it having previously been included in Maui conference, and that Bro. Woodbury preside. Elders Karren, [David] Rice, [Edgerton] Snider, [James] Lawson, [James] Keeler and Lynn [Gustaf Linn] were appointed to Hawaii. Elder [William] McBride and Priest Wolverton to Kauai. Elders Hammond and Reddin A. Allred to Maui. Elder Green to Molokai. Elder [James] Hawkins to Oahu. It was expected that Bro. Winchester would move to Honolulu as soon as practicable and be subject to the direction of the presidency. Elder Johnson was appointed to labor in Honolulu when not engaged in the business of the committee as we were well satisfied that his labors had been beneficial and were necessary there. There were twenty-two elders and priests appointed to travel in conjunction with the foreign elders—they were promising young men the majority of them and well calculated by the help of the Lord to do good. The remainder were to be subject to the calls of their respective presidents. Conference adjourned until the 8th inst. in order to meet with the Native saints in conference.

7 October 1853 • Friday

We met this morning in Conference and with the Native saints—there was a very large and attentive congregation, they having come from the various branches on this island and also from Molokai and some few had <even> come from Oahu. The conference was opened by singing and prayer, I then made the opening remarks setting forth the objects of the conference—the progress and prospects of the work on these lands—the spread of truth on other lands, and the causes we had to be stimulated. I was blessed much with the spirit and the people appeared to feel well. Others spoke also and were blessed. We then made a representation of the branches and spoke on their increase, &c. We then adjourned for an hour. In afternoon met and I made a statement of the business transacted by us in our conference, translating it to them and calling for their votes to support the measures adopted by us, which they did unanimously. I spoke at some length on the various subjects presented before the conference and was blessed very much with the spirit—in speaking on the subject of the press, gathering and the elevation of this people from their present degraded situation[.] I felt warmed up and felt the spirit very powerfully resting upon me—the people all felt its influence and in alluding to our labors, privations, forbearance & patience in spreading the truth on these lands, this together with the recital which I made of our feelings, that we had intended to have gone home and enjoy the society of our friends and relatives but had consented to forego these pleasures for a season for their <(the saints)> benefit and for the benefit of this people, the tears coursed down their cheeks and they appeared much affected. I told them that we had ties all <as> well as they—that we wanted wives as well as they—that we wanted children as well as they, that in staying we sacrificed all these things and therefore in regard to the press and other things we wanted to see them take hold with a will and assist us in redeeming their countrymen and in rolling <forth> this glorious work of the last days, for we did not want to spend all their <our> days here.13 Others of the brethren spoke also and the spirit was enjoyed much by all present. Met in meeting among ourselves in evening and was edified.14

8 October 1853 • Saturday

Met in conference <among ourselves> this morning and disposed of several items of business in relation to an invoice of books that we ordered from England last spring—the invoice had arrived last spring and the books were expected shortly;—They were passed over into the hands of the committee of three to be disposed of when they arrived.

We met at ten o’clock with the native saints and made a good many appointments and selected many for elders, priests, teachers and deacons, and done other business. I forgot to mention that yesterday we commenced collecting means for the press—it was but small but they showed their willingness.15 In evening we ordained some twenty three elders, twenty nine priests, sixteen teachers and twelve deacons.16

9 October 1853 • Sunday

We met this morning and had a very large concourse of people—the house was full to & overflowing as also the bowery and there were a great many outside; some of the brethren thought that there was in the vicinity of 1500.17 I preached on the Book of Mormon and was blessed very much with the spirit. During the intermission Bro. Johnson spoke in English to a few strangers and us brethren, and he was blessed very much and preached very powerfully. In afternoon attended to <the Lord’s> sacrament and spoke all of us exhorting, strengthening and teaching the saints. In af evening assembled with the native officers, quite a large assemblage, and gave them a lecture on their duties and the nature of their offices. It lasted two hours or upwards and I seldom, if ever, had the spirit of teaching to such an extent; the Lord blessed me beyond my most sanguine expectations with His Holy Spirit, and I was completely satisfied and felt relieved as I felt that it was very necessary before we seperated to give them a good deal of instruction as many of them were going into the field to labor with elders that know but very little of the native langu<a>ge and consequently much depends upon them.

10 October 1853 • Monday

Met this morning in company with many the saints before the sunrise and enjoyed the spirit much. The brethren going to Hawaii met this morning and made their arrangements for leaving. We met in conference together, that is the elders, to-day, and transacted other business, such as appointing Bro. Farrer to prepare a synopsis of the scripture; Bro. Hammond to translate such portions of the Doctrine & Covenants as the Presidency shall see fit; Elder Woodbury to select prepare a selection of hymns adapted to our form of worship. There was much conversation in relation to priesthood, uniformity in teaching, and in all the ordinances of the gospel, and also in regard to politics, &c. Motioned and carried that we take a trip to the mountain containing the extinct crater, Haleakala, on East Maui.18 Motioned and carried that <conference> be adjourned until April 6th, 1854, at a place the Presidency and he may designate. Closed with singing and prayer.

11 October 1853 • Tuesday

To day I was engaged with Bro. Winchester, the clerk of Conference, in preparing the minutes to be sent home, &c.

The brethren were variously engaged. I forgot to mention that there were about thirty baptized during conference. My feelings during this conference have been excellent—I have enjoyed it and felt that it has been a feast for me. We have been at it steady, meeting morning, noon and night leaving no time unimproved, and we have transacted a good deal of business in relation to the church on these lands. Unanimity and harmony have prevailed in all our deliberations and it has been apparent that the Lord has been with us. I think that it has exceeded any conference we have had for instruction, spirit &c. The Lord grant it may ever increase with me.

12 October 1853 • Wednesday

We fasted to-day as we had set it apart as a blessing day. We met together and blessed each other.19 The brethren called me forward and I was first blessed Bro. Lewis acting as mouth. The presidency and Bro. Johnson laid their hands upon me. The blessing was a powerful one and I felt the spirit bearing witness of its truth to me. They told me that I should bear this gospel to many other lands—that prisons should be rent and their bars burst asunder that they might not hold me in consequence of my mighty faith—that I should yet acquire many different languages and preach in power in them, and also translate the Book of Mormon in many languages—that I should be blessed with the blessing of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and with a numerous posterity who should be mighty and powerful in the Kingdom of God—that I should have a partner after my own heart—that my table should be constantly supplied and I be blessed with riches and all that my heart could desire in righteousness—that thousands should be fed at my table and I should be blessed all my days. These together with many other blessings were pronounced upon my head—that I should be blessed as in acting as Chairman of the Committee for the procural of a press, &c.—I felt melted down and felt to rejoice much. We were all blessed and also blessed Bro. [Jonathan] Napela &c. &c. Sister [Mary Jane] Hammond and a few native saints returned to-day to Lahaina. There were a good some horses brought from Kula by the saints for the benefit of the visitors to Haleakala; also some furnished by brethren here. Bros. Lewis, Tanner, Karren, Johnson, R. N. Allred, Hawkins, Hammond, Farrer, Woodbury, Bigler, Keeler and Dennis went to Kula to-day; and Bro. Snider and I went with Bro. John Winchester to his place, Haliimaile [Hali‘imaile], to pass the night. The remainder of the brethren felt themselves unequal to the task of travelling, and stayed at Wailuku.

13 October 1853 • Thursday

Left Bro. John’s and started for Kula; he kindly furnished me with a horse and a pair of blankets. We arrived at Kula and found all the brethren on hand and preparing to ascend the mountain. We left Bro. Kapono’s about ten o’clock some mounted on horses and some on asses. We were accompanied by seven of the native brethren, Bro. Kuaihulu acting as principal guide. Our provision &c. was packed on asses and driven by some boys who went along as cooks, &c. The morning was a splendid one, and we all felt in high spirits. In our ascent we passed thro’ several fields of Irish potatoes which were very luxuriant—they grow spontaneously and are of tolerable quality. The soil is very rich and might be cultivated to advantage; in the dry season water is rather scarce, there being no living running water in the district; the settlers are supplied from large natural cisterns formed in the beds of the creek, which are filled during the rainy season. During our ascent we had a beautiful view of the islands Kahoolawe and Lanai, as also West Maui and a corner of the island of Molokai. About noon and during the afternoon and evening we had splendid views of the clouds in consequence of our altitude—it required but a slight effort of the imagination to think they were mountains covered with snow. We found scrubby sandal wood, (formerly an article of export) growing on the sides of the mountain;20 also the Hawaiian whortleberry (ohelo) growing in abundance, which we found improved in flavor the higher we ascended.21 As we ascended the travelling increased in difficulty—the trail became indistinct and finally totally illegible, the ground over which we travelled being very stony and vegatation scarce. About three o’clock we came to a cave sufficiently large to lodge all of us comfortably, where our pilot told us we would have to stop for the night. Grass and water in small quantities were convenient. The night was comfortably spent by us although we felt sensibly the difference in the temperature, reminding us forcibly of our loved mountain home. This cave is in the vicinity of eight thousand feet above the level of the sea.22

14 October 1853 • Friday

Early this morning we were on our way, we found the ascent more toilsome than we had in yesterday’s travel. As we neared the top we had to travel through a large field of scoria—very wearisome traveling indeed.23 When we reached the summit we had a very distinct view of Hawaii with its twin mountains, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, the highest mountains in the Pacific. The summit of Mauna Kea was covered with snow,—its height is upwards of thirteen thousand feet.

We saw nothing of the crater, the object of our journey, until we stood at the summit when the whole sight burst upon our view, and we found ourselves standing on the brink of an almost perpendicular precipice which formed one of the sides of the vast caldron. We arrived in time to get a perfect view before the clouds filled it up, which they usually do about noon and the after part of the day and it was with feelings approaching to awe that we gazed upon this mighty laboratory of nature, said to be thirty miles in circumference. It was a sublime spectacle and one that filled the contemplative mind with food for reflection on the mighty power of the God of Joseph.

There is a break in the crater on the north [Ko‘olau Gap] and another on the east [Kaupo Gap]: it is nearly triangular in form and in the vicinity of two thousand five hundred feet in depth. Brother Karren concluded not to go down, as he felt rather unwell. We found it tolerably easy in descent although very steep; our road lay about three fourths of the distance through a bed of cinders, through which we passed very rapidly, running and leaping, sinking up to our knees every jump, sometimes our legs would get entangled and down we would fall without the least danger of being hurt—the descent occupied about fifteen or twenty minutes. The inside was entirely destitute of vegatation; we steered for a hill which we were told by our pilot was the last place from which Madame “Pele” the goddess of the volcanoe vomited forth her liquid fire. This hill is composed of scoria and cinders and about three hundred feet high; upon ascending we found a pit of about two hundred feet in depth of a conical shape, about two hundred feet across the top and about two rods wide in the bottom. From this hill there is a stream of lava flowing toward the northern gap—the place <seen,> I judge, from Keanae. We counted twelve of these hills in the bottom of the crater, similar in appearance to the one we ascended, all of a reddish appearance and looking as though they had been thrown up after the crater had become partly inactive. On the south side,—toward Kaupo—it appeared as though there had been a recent eruption; and the natives have legends connected with this crater when active which would seem to establish the fact that this had formerly been a liquid sea of fire, such as Kilauea is at the present time on Hawaii. After spending some time in the crater, eating, collecting specimens, &c. we commenced our return. Bros. Allred, Hammond and I kept together and it took us nearly two hours to ascend and that with the utmost exertion we were capable of. Whether from the altitude or some other cause I experienced a difficulty of respiration in returning. We were all very much fatigued and were very glad when we regained the summit. Some of the brethren were nearly done out for the want of water, viz.: Bros. Johnson, Tanner and Woodbury it took them nearly three hours.24 We were all out by half past one p.m. with the exception of Bros. Hawkins, who had gone no one knew where; he had started before the rest and no one had seen him since. I felt very anxious about him, as I was afraid something might have happened to him—a fall, the loss of his road, or exhaustion for want of water—and as I was not suffering for te w for want of water I proposed to stay until the rest should go to water and send two back to relieve me—it was almost useless to hunt him and I felt fearful lest he should return and finding us all gone, take the wrong trail. Bros. Allred and Bigler stayed also, and we ascended the highest hill we could find and whooped, hoping to make him hear. About three o’clock he hove in sight, just as Bros. Karren and Farrer were coming to our relief. We were glad to see him—he had ascended to the right considerably of us and had travelled more than we had. We descended about two miles to the creek where the water was, over as rough or rougher road than I ever travelled with a horse. As it was too late to think of returning by this time, we struck out for a cave about a mile from the water, and found commodious lodging for the night. Camping out brought back with vividness by gone scenes and associations and I wished earnestly for the time to roll around when I could again have the privilege of travelling so with my face home and Zionward.25

15 October 1853 • Saturday

We started this morning early for the settlement; we started without breakfast, having ate our last victuals last night. We had a bad road to travel for a while after starting, lava and large rocks piled up making, it tedious both for man and horse. We arrived at Bro. Kapono’s about ten o’clock and ate breakfast and then went to Omaopio where we remained awhile and partook of the Cactus fruit which grows in abundance there—it is a very good fruit.26 Bros. Hy. W. Bigler, Hawkins and Woodbury stayed to fill the appointment for the morrow in this place—Kula. <The brethren all went to excepting Wailuku excepting> Bros. Lewis, Johnson, Tanner, Karren, Dennis, Snider and myself went to Makawao, where they all slept at the house of Bro. Winchester, with the exception of Bros. Karren, Snider and myself—we rode to Wailuku, after supper, by moonlight. We found the brethren who were unwell improved in health.

16 October 1853 • Sunday

Bros. S. J., T., & D. arrived from Makawao this morning. I preached to-day to the saints in relation to the work that had been done, and to my labors among them, telling them of the glorious <work> in which they were engaged, and the bright and cheering prospects laying before them; and exhorted them to persevere unto the end, bearing testimony in the name of Jesus that what had been preached to them was true, and if they would observe these things they would be saved.27

17 October 1853 • Monday

I was engaged writing. The brethren and myself preparing our things to send to Lahaina.28 We have received a paper [Deseret News] of the 30th July from home, giving an account of the destruction of property by the Indians <under> by Walker [Wakara] who has come out an open enemy against us. The saints are busy fortifying—two <or three> men have been wounded and one killed. May the Lord exert his power in behalf of his people and discomfit all his enemies, is my prayer.29 The brethren, several of them, left for Lahaina by way of Kealia by boat.

18 October 1853 • Tuesday

Writing licences for the Elders and Priests going on missions from this conference. In the evening Bros. Bigler, Allred, Hawkins and Farrer left for Lahaina, by moonlight. Bro. Napela and I left in the night for Lahaina and arrived about day-light.30 We found all well.

19 October 1853 • Wednesday

We made arrangements this morning to go to Lanai for the purpose of exploring; the party was composed of the committee, Elders Karren, Napela, and myself; Bro. R. N. Allred went over as a committee man in place of Br. McBride, who was unwell.31 Our passage was a very tedious one, for the want of wind and the men had to row, (it being a whale boat,) with what aid we could give them, all the way. The distance was about eighteen miles. We arrived about 4 o’clock [at Manele]. Bro. Allred was quite sea sick and I <had> great difficulty to repress my inclination to do likewise, but I escaped, altho’ I felt the influence <of it> all the evening. We <were> entertained by a member of the Catholic church who was believing—they were very kind and hospitable. We held meeting in the evening and I preached; two were baptized.32

20 October 1853 • Thursday

Confirmed the two baptized and held meeting; after which ate breakfast, the fish having been caught by one of the brethren [one of those baptized the night before] who sat up all night fishing for us. May the Lord bless them for their kindness. We started after eating for the top of the mountain, where the land which we were in search of [was located]; the ascent was from one to two miles in length, quite steep and rocky; after reaching the summit we travelled thro’ a fine piece of level land for a short distance, when we came to a beautiful basin gradually descending to the centre, of about two miles width, shut out entirely and secluded from the view of the sea; it reminded me of Deseret. It was a splendid piece of land and seemed to be well adapted for a gathering place as far as quality of soil and situation is concerned. We crossed the valley and came to a settlement where some few saints resided, we were treated with much friendship. Ate a luncheon and then ascended a hill behind the settlement toward the mountain with the intention of seeing the place from whence they get their supply of water; after about a mile and a half’s travel we came to a hill with steps cut in the clay, descending to the water in a deep gorge. We found no running water, but, only a few holes which were kept supplied by the oozing of the water thro’ the soil and porous rock which composed the sides of the mountain. This was <the> only water upon which this basin depended, and it was but a poor prospect for supplying the wants of a community from such a source, but it was thought by the brethren that by digging wells or forming reservoirs there might be a supply provided sufficient to supply a community of any size. Timber also was rather scarce but this is not so much of an object in this country, where it is only <used> for building and cooking purposes and but I not very extensively even for such objects, as it is among a white people. We returned, ate dinner, and took a circuit thro’ the centre of the valley; we passed a patch of beans which were growing very luxuriantly; one vine had ran on a tree which stood near bye, and covered it completely with its tendrils, making a very beautiful appearances, the top of the tree being of an umbrella shape in consequence of its prolific growth; the stem had attained the surprising diameter of two to three inches. Sweet Potatoes were growing wild in the bottom. After we arrived at the centre we struck out for Manele our place of landing and where we left in morning. Had a bathe in evening.33

21 October 1853 • Friday

Held meeting this morning, and after eating breakfast we set sail about 9 o’clock for Lahaina. We had to be propelled by oars as the wind was lulled, the sea was very rough, and we were soon all seasick all that were inclined that way; I commenced it and I never was so deadly seasick, that I remember, before; it seemed as though I could not endure it very long, a cold prespiration started out all over me and I was really very sick. Bro. Napela prayed aloud to the Lord <by my request>, to bless us with a breeze and it was only a few minutes before we had to unship our oars, and we were gliding along delightfully before a pleasant breeze, which carried us into Lahaina.34 I was glad when I again put my foot on terra firma, and after arriving at Bro. Hammond’s, I soon lost all the sensations, with which I had been troubled, and we enjoyed the afternoon much.35

22 October 1853 • Saturday

Variously engaged. Bros. Lewis, Bigler, Farrer and Hawkins had gone to Honolulu while we were gone. Conversing on the subject of <a> gathering place on Lanai; there is, apparently, a disunion among the members of the committee, and feelings were elicited which I was grieved to see. Bro. Tanner was opposed to the project; the rest were in favor of it, and there were some sharp passages between him and Bro. Johnson.

23 October 1853 • Sunday

At meeting and I preached and was blessed with freedom. Again held meeting in afternoon, Bros. [Paulo] Maewaewa, Hammond and I spoke, and afterwards called upon the saints for their contributions towards the press. Some few contributed.36

24 October 1853 • Monday

The brethren, Keeler, Lawson, Woodbury and Snider arrived from Wailuku this morning early; they bring word that Bro. Geo. [George] Raymond had contributed a colt, and two beeves toward the press &c.37 We embarked on board the whale ship Hannibal, Capt. Lester, for Honolulu after taking leave of all the brethren with regret; there were five of us, Bros. Johnson, Tanner, McBride, Dennis and myself, embarked. He treated us very politely and entertained us in his cabin, with state rooms for our accommodation. I was not seasick, altho’ I felt a little qualmish; Bro. McBride was slightly seasick. It was the most pleasant passage I have taken for years; and <I> felt pleased, as I had dreaded the voyage very much, in consequence of my painful experience on the passage from Lanai.

25 October 1853 • Tuesday

Landed in Honolulu this morning and met Bros. Pres. Lewis and the other brethren at the house of Bro. Dennis; Sis. D. [Hakuole Dennis] was well and seemed glad to see us. Went and bathed in afternoon in company with some of the brethren.

26 October 1853 • Wednesday

This morning we met at Bro. Lewis’ house and was conversing on the subject of gathering at Lanai when there was a repetition of some of the remarks that had passed between Bros. Tanner and Johnson, at Lahaina. Bro. T. made some distinct charges against Bro. J., saying, that he had been aspiring &c. &c. Pres. Lewis thought it best to call all the brethren together and investigate the matter as we could not be prospered, he said, as long as disunion existed in our midst. We met, complaints <& charges> were made, and attempted to be sustained and rebutted; the council held until after dark without <them> being fully settled. Adjourned until 9 o’clock A.M. on the morrow.38

27 October 1853 • Thursday

Met again and finished up what was left unfinished; the brethren unburthened themselves and were charged by Bro. Lewis to tell all their feelings without reserve that there might be no cause <left> for a recurrence of such feelings. The charges were not sustained, and suitable confessions were made, and all feelings and jealousies were done away with.39 Had a long conversation in evening at Bro. L’s with a Capt. Richmond, on the whale fishery, &c.40

28 October 1853 • Friday

Variously engaged

29 October 1853 • Saturday

do. do.41 Went inland and bathed.

30 October 1853 • Sunday

Bro. Woodbury preached, I followed and was blessed in bearing my testimony. In afternoon I preached.42 In evening one of the High Chiefs, and a member of the Privy Council [Levi Haalelea] called to see me, in company with Bro. [William] Uaua. We had quite an interesting conversation; I told him our plans in regard to the press, the Book of Mormon, place of gathering, &c., &c.; he was interested, and said he had many lands on the different islands, the basin on Lanai which we had explored was <is> composed, in part, of one of his lands, and he was willing, he said, to assist us all he could. He is an agreeable man and evidently believing the work.43

31 October 1853 • Monday

The mail arrived to-day from the valley bringing me three letters and an extra [of the Deseret News]:44 one was from Elizabeth [Hoagland] which was very cheering and filled, as usual, with expressions of love and enduring affection. She is anxious to hear of my return, and says, <that some tell her> that I am not coming home, if she could think so, she says, she would feel like shouldering her pack and come to meet me. Bless her, O Lord, for her constancy and may she be strengthened continually and kept unto the end. She alludes to a circumstance which has made me mourn, and which has is contained in the “Extra,” that is, the death of Bros. John Dixon and John Quayle and the wounding of Bro. John Hoagland in the arm, they having been <attacked by> ambushed Indians and John D. was shot dead and John Q. was was [sic] killed from his horse in attempting to flee. They were teaming from Snider’s mill, Parley’s park [Parleys Summit], and the Indians got three span of horses, the other span, Bro. Hoagland’s, escaped, John H. and Bro. Knight having ridden them off. I felt very bad indeed in hearing this news; with all these his <John D’s> faults I was much endeared to him, as we had been together under many various circumstances, and he had always been very fr kind and brotherly to me. One, written by Angus [Cannon], contained <strong> expressions of faith & assurance in the justice of the cause and its consequent triumph over all who might oppose it. It was the best letter that I have received from him, and contained kind and loving feelings, as also the other one, which was written by Mary Alice [Lambert] and Anne [Ann Woodbury]; they are looking anxiously for my return, and their letters are pleasant to read assuring me that there are those who love me and feel interested in my welfare. The intention is to fortify the city and all the settlements, and those who are scattered are commanded to gather into the places of security. The labors of the Saints are likely to be heavy, very heavy this season, in consequence of all this; and, I feel that they have need of my prayers and the prayers of all saints.—In afternoon went with Bro. Woodbury to get our dg daguerreotype portrait taken; his was taken and was a good one; when I sat, the brethren tried to make me smile, and when the plate was drawn it was a correct likeness but was had a little too strong a smile, and the brethren thought I had better have another taken. As it was then too late, it was deferred till morning.45


  1. [1]Cannon originally wrote the date of this entry as September 30 and the following three entries as October 1–3, but corrected them in pen to October 1–4.

  2. [2]Woodbury read “a portion of the 42 ch. of Isiah and Spoke from Amos 3 ch. 7 v. on revealation and the order of the kingdom enjoyed the spirit. Bro. Cannon and Allred spoke on the same subject” (Woodbury diary, Oct. 2, 1853).

  3. [3]Farrer and Bigler traveled from Lahaina to Wailuku by foot rather than boat “on account of being so sea sick.” They “arrived at Wailuku at 10 o clock P.M. considerably fatigued” (Farrer diary, Oct. 3, 1853).

  4. [4]Additional details of the day’s events were recorded by Karren and Farrer: “We head a time of rejoiceing Which will be long remembered In the Afternoon there was 20 Forigen Elders of us met together After a little Chat together, we all went and head a Fresh water Bath” (Karren journal, Oct. 4, 1853). “In the evening the Brethren sang a new song composed by Bro. J. E. B. Winchester together with a number of other songs & Hymns & had a time of rejoicing together”” (Farrer diary, Oct. 4, 1853).

  5. [5]Hammond had visited Lana‘i during the last week of September, where he preached to some twenty individuals at Manele, baptized four, and organized a branch of nine members, in addition to visiting the Palawai Basin. Hammond wrote of the Basin: “A better tract of land in one body I have never seen on these lands. only one fault with the place that is rain. there is a scearseity for water a part of the year, but resavoirs could be prepared and so have a plenty of water for man and beast. I have never seen a place better calculated for the colinizeing of the saints on these Islands than this is” (Hammond journal, Sept. 24–28, 1853).

  6. [6]The missionaries also spent part of the time discussing “the subject of ordaining native Elders” (Hammond journal, Oct. 5, 1853).

  7. [7]Cannon originally wrote the month as April but corrected it in pen.

  8. [8]Minutes of the conference have been included as Appendix 3, Item 6.

  9. [9]Written in pencil.

  10. [10]The totals “showed an increase of 3 fold during the last 6 months” (Hammond journal, Oct. 7, 1853).

  11. [11]The missionaries on O‘ahu had been unsuccessful in their endeavors to secure a publisher for the Book of Mormon, prompting Tanner to write, “It looks dark & the propsects very unfavrable at present” (Tanner journal, Sept. 14, 1853).

  12. [12]The Latter-day Saints had desired to establish government-financed schools, a privilege granted the Protestants and Catholics before them, but government officials denied their request. Some anti-Mormon feelings were likely involved in the decision-making process, as concerns were raised by other religions that the Mormons would use their schools to preach practices contrary to the laws of the land, specifically plural marriage. At the time the Latter-day Saints made their request, however, the government was attempting to reduce the number of government-financed schools already in existence while trying to increase the number of students attending those schools. In 1850 the Hawaiian government was supporting 543 schools with an average of twenty-eight students per school (“Government Schools—1850,” Polynesian, May 24, 1851). By 1852 the number of schools had decreased to 436, while the number of scholars per school had risen to nearly thirty-two (“Hawaiian Statistics,” Honolulu Friend, May 1853). In most instances the schools run by the Latter-day Saints would have had significantly fewer students, a fact that clashed with the government’s plans. Several Latter-day Saint missionaries had previously established schools where students paid for their education, but almost all of these schools were short-lived. Farrer wrote about the school he started at Hakipu‘u on the island of O‘ahu: “Bro. L. [Lewis] told me that I had better commence a school & teach the English language if I could get scholars as it would be a means of enlightening & raising this people if they were taught the English & we would be the better able to teach them principle as their own language is very dificient of words to explain principle” (Farrer diary, Apr. 3, 1852). After two weeks in which he had no more than two or three scholars per day, Farrer noted that he had failed to establish a school, in part because “word come from Mr [Rev. Benjamin] Parker forbiding them to come to me to school & they are afraid of him. I have spoken to some of them & endeavored to shew to them that they were a free people & that they were not under the [Congregationalist] missionaries” (Farrer diary, Apr. 16, 1852). A comparison of the journals of the Latter-day Saint missionaries in Hawai‘i shows that Mary Jane Hammond’s school was the most successful of the Latter-day Saint schools in length of operation and number of students.

  13. [13]Although several of the original elders anticipated their release at this conference, “it was thought best for the old Elders to stop another Six months and help on the work” (Keeler journal, Oct. 6, 1853).

  14. [14]At the evening meeting the missionaries “discussed many intersting questions such as the proprity of ordaining Native Elders teaching the Word of Wisdom—tithing the proprity of our interfering with the affairs of the government in electing members to the Legislature &c.” (Johnson diary, Oct. 7, 1853).

  15. [15]During the previous day’s general session, Cannon “laid before the conference the necessity of our owning a printing press, . . . also to seek out places for the locating of the saints on these lands, &c. all [of] which was heartily sustained by the saints” (Hammond journal, Oct. 7, 1853). In response, “Many brot forth their money to evince their anxiety to assist in procuring the Press, &c. yet the Natives are so extremely poor it is but little that Each one can give” (Johnson diary, Oct. 7, 1853). “Some 40 dollars was collected for the press during conference (native)” (Hammond journal, Oct. 10, 1853).

  16. [16]“Some Priests, Teachers & Deacons [were] chosen for the diferent branches throughout the Maui conference” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 8, 1853). Additionally, “Elder Paulo and Priest Maewaewa ware chosen to go to oahu to preach the gospel. 14 native Elders & Priests ware chosen to go to Hawai and 3 to Molichi besides a number to travil and preach on Maui” (Bigler diary, “Book D,” Oct. 10, 1853).

  17. [17]“The house could not contain much more than half the assembaly” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 9, 1853).

  18. [18]Haleakala translates as “house of the sun.” According to Hawaiian legend, the demigod Maui lassoed the sun from the top of the mountain in order to lengthen the day to permit his mother, Hina, to dry the tapa cloth she was making (Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini, Place Names of Hawaii, 36). Rising ten thousand feet above sea level, Haleakala is the world’s largest dormant volcano and covers an area four times as large as West Maui. The great crater is three thousand feet deep and has a circumference of twenty-one miles.

  19. [19]The meeting was held “to dedicate and Set a part each other for our differant fields of Labor” (Karren journal, Oct. 12, 1853).

  20. [20]Varieties of sandalwood, known by the Hawaiian name ‘iliahi, grow from the coasts to the mountains, varying in size from shrubs to trees more than fifty feet high. The highly scented heartwood of the trunk and branches was valued worldwide for the production of perfume and had been harvested nearly to extinction prior to Cannon’s arrival in Hawai‘i. Closely related to ‘iliahi is naio, also known as bastard sandalwood, which grows from near sea level to altitudes of seven thousand feet and is still commonly found on the slopes of Haleakala and the Big Island’s Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa. The heartwood of naio has a scent similar to that of ‘iliahi. For additional information concerning ‘iliahi and naio, see Krauss, Plants in Hawaiian Culture, 174, 240.

  21. [21]Whortleberry (ohelo) is another term for European blueberry. Ohelo is a native Hawaiian shrub, typically from one to two feet in height, that grows on the mountains of the four largest islands. Its fruit, which is yellow, red, or orange, varies in shape and color from island to island. Many Hawaiians believed that ohelo was sacred to the volcano goddess Pele. Visitors to the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island frequently threw fruit-bearing branches of ohelo into the fire pit as an offering to her. For further information, see Krauss, Plants in Hawaiian Culture, 262; Mitchell, Resource Units in Hawaiian Culture, 129. Ohelo is known as whortleberry in English.

  22. [22]Reddick Allred wrote of the journey: “For 6 miles after we left Kapono’s we found a good rich soil & thickly spread with strawberry vines which afforded abundence of fruit in the season thereof, but [we] were then to late; we howevery got our fill of ‘Ohelos.’. . . We [then] entered the rock which made the rest of our journy quiet difficult espeshly for the animals, but we succeeded in geting along by occasionaly aliteing & leading a few rods. We got a bout twelve miles up the Mountain” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 13, 1853). The cave where they stopped was “a general Camping Place for most of Visiters to the Top of this Mountain” (Karren journal, Oct. 13, 1853). From their campsite, the missionaries “could look down upon the clouds whitch Spread out over the country below us and presented a grand Seenery” (Woodbury diary, Oct. 13, 1853). Karren added that the “evening was Butifull and Clear the atmosphear some what sharp and Cold, we all felt to Butten our coates and keep our Hands in our pockets” (Karren journal, Oct. 13, 1853).

  23. [23]Scoriae are rough, cindery stones formed by the cooling of molten lava and the concurrent release of trapped gases.

  24. [24]Johnson provided additional details of their journey to the top of Haleakala, their descent, and their time inside the crater: “This morning quite Cold prepare to get an early start to . . . the crater which the Natives [said] was some three miles distant. it was so verry steep & rough that it was with great dificulty that we could assend by winding our way & securing the most smooth and elagable rout we wore obliged to dismount & travil on foot much of the way to the top of which place we arived about half past 8 in the morning. . . . We tied our horses set forth & soon found a declivity which afforded us a safe tho steep & rocky decent . . . when we struck into a sheet of fine decomposed Lava which seemed to slide us forward with much ease until we reached the Bottom. . . . We then set forth towards a Cone Like Crater the distance of Near one mile over a sheet of crumbling sinders much in apearance like Stone Coal and Blacksmith’s sinders” (Johnson diary, Oct. 14, 1853). Hammond noted of the ascent: “We commenced our ascent up the side of the Crater a little different route from that we came down as it would have been impossible for us to have returned the way we came down on account of the soft sand & Sinders. The route we took was more rocks where we could get a foot hold” (Hammond journal, Oct. 14, 1853). Johnson reported that “the Brethren who were strong & able soon arose out of our sight Brother Tanner myself & Br Woodberry remained together. . . . We had Brot no watter & concequently began to suffer much for watter. . . . We arrived Tired and Nearly Exausted” (Johnson diary, Oct. 14, 1853).

  25. [25]Concerning the effort to locate water, Keeler wrote: “We traveled down the mountain in a northwesterley course about two miles & found water over a very rough country & soe steap that it was next to imposible to ride” (Keeler journal, Oct. 14, 1853). Once reunited, the missionaries “proceeded downward untill near Sun set when we came to a large & comodious cave in the rocks where we stoped for the night which was clear & cold” (Johnson diary, Oct. 14, 1853).

  26. [26]The missionaries concluded their descent of the mountain by a different route than they took during their ascent. “Our road was very rough for about 3 miles and then came to good grass and soft road to travel on, which the animals seemed to appreciate very much as they [their] feet had not scearsely been on the ground since yesterday but continualy on the broken lava which is very sharp and bad to walk upon” (Hammond journal, Oct. 15, 1853). Karren noted of their visit to Haleakala: “A visit to this Crater by Strangers is performed at a great Expence having to hire Horses and food and Natives to pilot them up But we ware furnished with every thing we wanted” (Karren journal, Oct. 15, 1853). After breakfast the missionaries “rode about two miles” to where the lower meetinghouse was located and enjoyed “a feast of ripe Pa-Bipus or the fruit of the largest species of Cacktus or prickly pear which here covers many acres. . . . Here we stayed about two hours while our horses wore feeding” (Johnson diary, Oct. 15, 1853).

  27. [27]Farrer reported that two meetings were held during the day. “Bro’s Keeler myself & Cannon, spoke to the Brethren on the necessity of obeying the commandments of God, & that it was not necessary to observe what was written in the Bible alone but what the Lord mad[e] Known to us through his servants in these days as well shewing that the Lord gave instructions to his people at different times according to their circumstances, & therefore the necessity of our listening to the counsel of the servants of God. In the afternoon Bro Cannon Preached a farewell discourse to them as he expected to leave them in a few days, & exhorted them to stand fast in the truth” (Farrer diary, Oct. 16, 1853). Woodbury reached Wailuku “just at dark and found the brethren all well & reading a newspaper (Deseret news) whitch had just arrived from the Valley. . . . Spent the evening hearing the news read by Bro. Cannon” (Woodbury diary, Oct. 16, 1853).

  28. [28]Cannon was bound for Honolulu “on the duties of his office” pertaining to the press (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 16, 1853).

  29. [29]The “Walker War” was a series of clashes between Mormon settlers primarily in Utah and Sanpete counties and members of the Ute tribe under the leadership of Chief Wakara (Chief Walker). The attacks began in July 1853 and lasted about ten months. An unknown number of Utes and fewer than twenty white settlers were killed in the conflict. By the time the missionaries in Hawai‘i learned of the skirmishes, the war was basically over except for a few minor depredations, although the negotiations that ended the conflict did not occur until May 1854 (Christy, “Walker War,” 395–420; Poll, Utah’s History, 361–62). The news of the Walker War was of particular interest to Johnson, who was from Summit Creek (now Santaquin) in Utah County. “Summit Creek had bin evacuated leaving me without any light upon the subject of the whereabouts of my family This news tended to fill me with sadness and anxiety which I strove to overcome & put my trust in my Heavenly Father for the protection of my family.” Two weeks later he noted, “My letters confirmed my fears in regard to the cituation of my family I learn that they ware compelled to flea at midnight” (Johnson diary, Oct. 16, 31, 1853). Following his mission, Johnson moved his family back to Summit Creek (Johnson, My Life’s Review, 197).

  30. [30]Woodbury wrote of Cannon’s departure: “Br. Cannon took leave of Wailuku (where he had lived so long at Bro. Napelas and where he had translated the Book of Mormon) to start on his mission to collect means for the purchaseing of the printing press. the natives felt bad to see him go away” (Woodbury diary, Oct. 18, 1853). The missionaries traveled at night to avoid “the excessive heat on the south side of the Mountain” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 18, 1853).

  31. [31]The company consisted of Hammond, Tanner, Johnson, Karren, Cannon, Reddick Allred, Napela, Edward Dennis, and a crew of three native Church members (Farrer diary, Oct. 19, 1853). Allred noted that the group “filled our craft” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 19, 1853). They were going to look at the Palawai Basin as “a gathering place for the saints, where we can have a better opertunity for improveing them in habits of cleanliness, industry, &c.” (Woodbury diary, Oct. 17, 1853).

  32. [32]Manele was a village of around one dozen houses (Johnson diary, Oct. 19, 1853). Karren reported that both Napela and Cannon “preached in Evening to a small congragation of Natives, who give the best of atention. There was a good Spirit manifested” (Karren journal, Oct. 19, 1853). Hammond recorded that “Bro. N. baptised a man and his wife, friends of his” (Hammond journal, Oct. 19, 1853).

  33. [33]Johnson was optimistic concerning the Palawai Basin: “I almost felt that the providence of the Lord had provided this place for the gathering of His Saints upon these lands. . . which seems from its retired & secluded position admirably adapted as a place of gathering to benefit this people by [separating] them from the eavle influences that surround them. . . . This Vally seems so pleasant & cheerful and so well adapted as a Home for the Saints that I feel a great anxiety that we may be able to secure the land & procure watter” (Johnson diary, Oct. 20, 1853). Reddick Allred and Tanner were less enthusiastic. “The brethren thought the water might be saved by makeing Resevoirs to hold the great quantity of water which rushes down the canyons in the rainy season. . . . I thought the committee should look further before locateing the saints (espeshely the natives to whom we were trying to teach clenlyness) on an Island where there was no runing water” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 20, 1853). The lack of water prompted Tanner to “think of a grate fine fat horse with one lage broke which would render him intirley usless” (Tanner journal, Oct. 20, 1853). Karren noted that all the missionaries “went into the sea and head a good Beathe to wash of the dust and the sweat” of the day’s journey (Karren journal, Oct. 20, 1853).

  34. [34]Reddick Allred and Johnson provided additional details about the voyage: “We had but little wind & our boatmen had to row the most of the way which made our progress quiet tardy & disagreeable. . . . When we started Elder Cannon & I laid flat down in the boat to prevent sea sickness, we were however, all very sick but Bros. Hammond & Dennis, they being old seamen” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 21, 1853). “We ware all so very sick that Br Cannon called to Napella our Native Elder to pray. . . . The oares ware laid aside & the wind wafted us swiftly over the wave” (Johnson diary, Oct. 21, 1853).

  35. [35]The missionaries spent the afternoon discussing the Palawai Basin as a possible gathering place. “The committee talked over the matter relative to the location on Lanai, whether they should try to procure the land &c. . . . All the committee were in favour of procureing the land from [Levi] Haalelea and settleing the native saints, but Bro. Tanner” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 21, 1853). Tanner explained his concerns in his diary: “The scarsety of Watter seamed a barer in the minds of all but br Johnson & br Hamon [who] seamed to think we should reporte it a pracktabl plase to gether all the saints in this groop of Islands by makeing sisterns to catch & hold watter an on the prospects of diging wells. . . . The natives no nothing of this sort of buisness & can not do it alone & in as much as our gethering is to be temporary one as only a preparatory for a gethering to America I could not think it Wisdom to exspend to much in this way as it will interfear with our giting the printing press but br Hamond & Johnson seamed to want to ingage men & means in exspereamenting on dry land” (Tanner journal, Oct. 21, 1853). The missionaries concluded to make “an effort to get the land in such a way as to not run any risk till we ascertain whether water can be obtained there” (Hammond journal, Oct. 21, 1853).

  36. [36]Hammond recounted the day’s events in greater detail: “Elder Cannon preached on the setting up the Kingdom of God in these days; and [made] some remarks on the press. . . . 4 o.c. p.m. held meeting again. . . . [I] called on those who were prepared to give anything for the press to come forward; when some 4 dollars was handed in, but the notice being so short there was not as much collected as otherwise would have been. The Saints are all poor in Lahaina and live from hand to mouth. . . . Blessed a little child of one of the members. Bro. Cannon was mouth” (Hammond journal, Oct. 23, 1853).

  37. [37]Reddick Allred noted that during the meeting at Wailuku, a letter was “read from Elder Cannon to the Saints in regards to assisting for the ‘Press,’ for the officers to lead out in the matter &c.” In addition to Raymond’s donation of “about Forty dols. in property, . . . Kaelepulu followed with ten also others manifested a willing[ness] to assist according to their means” (Reddick Allred journal, Oct. 23, 1853).

  38. [38]The sharpness of the meeting was underscored by both Johnson and Tanner. Johnson wrote:

    “Met with the Bros this morning to take into concideration some matters relative to the mission among which was the propriety of selecting a place for the gathering of the Saints, upon which Elder Tanner & myself had never fully agreed we wore soon led to differ in our opinions when Brother T acused me of aspiring to dictate this mission & to act out of my place all of which served to grieve & mortify me The President apointed the afternoon to enquire into the matter” (Johnson diary, Oct. 26, 1853). Tanner wrote: “On stateing our views I as 1 of the [Land] Commitee stated that I thought it an unfavourable site for a location in consiquense of the [s]carsity of Watter after sum exhangeing of views which became Warme espeshely betwixt br Johnson & me in exsplaining our eydeas & policy the meeting was adjurned till morning (Tanner journal, Oct. 26, 1853).

  39. [39]Lewis left an overview of the meeting: “I called the Brethren together to settle the dificulty. Bro Tanner made some grave charges against Bro J which proved to have been founded in prejudice only and I gave my decision to that effect, and after . . . giving some advice to both parties the dificulty was amicably settled” (Lewis journal, Oct. 27, 1853). Tanner reported that Lewis “reprove[d] us both for what we ware both gilty off. He sed br Johnson was in a habit of exspressing himself in a way & manner that was calcalated to hurt fealings & raise jeleseys a speshely a bout his hy Preast whood [being a High Priest] &c &c & that I had watched him with to jelous an eye” (Tanner journal, Oct. 27, 1853).

  40. [40]Johnson reported that Richmond had “just arrived from the arctick came to visit Br Lewis & we were called to spend the eavning which was rendered agreeable by his verry friendly conversation in discribing the Natives of the Arctick Region there manners customs &c” (Johnson diary, Oct. 27, 1853). Woodbury, Hammond, and Lewis had sailed to Hawai‘i in 1851 on a vessel captained by Richmond (Woodbury diary, Oct. 27, 1853).

  41. [41]Cannon had a lengthy gospel discussion during the afternoon with an unidentified individual who stopped by to see him (Farrer diary, Oct. 29, 1853).

  42. [42]Farrer reported that in the morning meeting, Woodbury and Cannon preached “mostly on the first principles of the gospel. they enjoyed the spirit & we had a good time. In the afternoon Bro. C again addressed us on the Subject of present revelation & corresponding subjects” (Farrer diary, Oct. 30, 1853).

  43. [43]Farrer noted of Haalelea’s visit: “Bro. Cannon had considerable conversation with him, when he offered to assist towards the Printing Press. he also owns . . . part of the land the brethren went to look at on Lanai, & he appeared willing to let us have some of it on favorable terms if we could find a peice suitable for a gathering place” (Farrer diary, Oct. 30, 1853).

  44. [44]The Deseret News extra mentioned by Cannon, published August 25, 1853, contained a proclamation by Governor Brigham Young outlining precautions the white settlers should take in light of tensions between Mormons and Indians, as well as local news, including reports of Indian attacks.

  45. [45]Johnson accompanied Woodbury and Cannon to the daguerreotypist. While en route they “called at the post office & found the U S Mail had arrived & a large package of letters” (Johnson diary, Oct. 31, 1853). Having stopped to read the mail, they did not reach the daguerreotype studio until later than anticipated.