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April 1853


1 April 1853 • Friday

do. do.1

2 April 1853 • Saturday

Translating the revelation of August2 <July> 12th,3 1843 I having been appointed for that purpose by the conference.4 In evening held meeting.

3 April 1853 • Sunday

Held meeting and had a good attendance. In evening had another meeting and had a very good time Bro. Keeler spoke and I followed and we had a lively time.5 We afterwards went and <I> preached a funeral sermon at the house of one of the brethren; his mother having died; she did not belong to the church.

4 April 1853 • Monday

Reading &c. Bros. McBride, Green & Woodbury arrived from Honolulu Lahaina—they left all well at Lahaina.6

5 April 1853 • Tuesday

Reading &c. Bros. Hawkins & R. A. Allred arrived from Makawao both well. Bro. Lawson from Lahaina in afternoon.7

6 April 1853 • Wednesday

Blustry weather. Met this morning at about 10 o’clock, there was a good attendance. I nominated and Bro. Keeler seconded Bro. Hawkins as President of the conference. Present: 10 of the Seventy, 1 Elder, 2 Priests, [blank] Teachers, [blank] Deacons.8 After singing, and prayer by me, we proceeded to make a representation of the branches on this island and on Molokai, it being in this conference, the numbers 1054 members, 5 seventys, 2 elders, 3 priests, 27 teachers, 43 deacons. Bro. Hawkins had made the preliminary remarks and was followed by me. We all spoke and enjoyed the spirit. Dismissed for half an hour. Met again in afternoon and transacted some little business after we were thro’ with it, Bro Hawkins spoke for some tim a little on various subjects. I followed and preached for upwards of an hour on the different glories and on subjects connected therewith and was blessed with a steady and heavy flow.9 their (the peoples’) eyes shone and the[y] paid the best <of> attention to what was said—I was blessed with the gift of preaching and teaching and my ideas flowed clearly and freely.10 Bro. Woodbury followed & Bros. Hawkins, Allred & Lawson spoke; Bros. Lawson & Allred’s words were interpreted. We all enjoyed ourselves much. Translating this evening the revelation on marriage.

7 April 1853 • Thursday

Translating at the revelation this morning and did not go to meeting but stayed to finish it. I gave it to Napela to read and he was very much pleased with it and felt to praise the Lord for it—it was the first intimation that he had of it. To-day was observed as a fast day we having concluded to alter it to from the first of each month to the first Thursday of each month, to correspond with the Valley arrangement of that day.11 In afternoon I preached on the doctrine of plurality &c. and was blessed very much with the spirit and the people listened very attentively; we thought it best to do this to prevent the influence of lies &c. that we knew would be certainly made use of and also newspaper stories, and we felt that the best way to counteract the influence of false doctrine was to declare the truth and to explain it fully to them that there might be no room for mistake or wickedness. I impressed very much upon them the necessity of not meddling with these things—that at present these things were <not> for for12 them. I then read the revelation and explained every thing that I thought might be mysterious to them. The people felt well and enjoyed the spirit much.13 Went to Waiehu this evening and married a couple, a half white of the name of [James] Robinson to a Isabella the daughter of Mr. Birch.

8 April 1853 • Friday

Attended to meeting this morning among ourselves and had a very good time the brethren Winchester, R. A. Allred, R. N. Allred and Lawson intended to leave for Makawao. Bros. Woodbury & Mc Bride had hands laid upon them by us for the gift of health and Bro. Winchester was blessed by us, I acting as mouth. Bro. Napela was not at home when the brethren left when he returned and found they were gone, he said, that they ought not to have gone, they ought to have stayed with him until they got a smattering of the language—he said that they would form a class and teach them and he thought they would learn it fast that way.14

9 April 1853 • Saturday

Bros. Mc Bride & Green started for Lahaina this morning intending to get some things, books, &c. and return. In afternoon Bro. Hawkins started for Kula. Commenced a letter to Bro. Joseph Cain.

10 April 1853 • Sunday

Bible class had a good time and the spirit of instruction. Afterwards had preaching, Bros. Keeler, Woodbury and I spoke, and had a very good meeting. In afternoon, attended to the Lord’s supper and confirmed five that had been baptised. We had a very good meeting in afternoon. After meeting we went about two miles to administer to a sick brother.

11 April 1853 • Monday

Reading &c. The glorious principles that are being revealed fill <me> with joy and delightful feelings and it is my desire constantly to magnify the priesthood which I have received that I may attaid attain unto endless lives and a seat in the celestial kingdom of the Lord, and be permitted to sit down in the presence of the Father and Son. Finished my letter to Bro. Joseph C. and also another to Elizabeth [Hoagland].

12 April 1853 • Tuesday

Wrote to day a long letter to Uncle and Aunt [John and Leonora Taylor], and also some lines in two letters that Bro. Egerton [Edgerton] Snider wrote, one to Bro. Archy. [Archibald] Gardner and another to Sister Sarah Lawrence. Bro. Hawkins arrived from Kula this afternoon with the intention of accompanying Bro. Woodbury to Molokai. I had thought of going before conference there, but in consequence of bad weather the interval before conference time was so short that I would not attempt it and therefore it was thought best for Bro. H. to go in my stead as I wanted to go around the east end of the island and visit and strengthen the saints in company with Bro. Keeler. The weather has been very unsettled for some time, yesterday and to-day has been very rainy. Bro. Napela started for Lahaina.

13 April 1853 • Wednesday

Reading &c. Bro. Lawson arrived well from Makawao.15

14 April 1853 • Thursday

do. Weather still unsettled.

15 April 1853 • Friday

Wrote a letter to Bro. Hammond by Bros. Hawkins and Woodbury who started for Lahaina this morning, also one to Bro. Wm. Farrer. Bros. Mc Bride and Green arrived from Lahaina. They brought me a letter from Bro. Lewis.16

16 April 1853 • Saturday

To-day I kept as a fast day. Reading, writing &c.

17 April 1853 • Sunday

Had a Bible class this morning and afterwards held meeting Bro. Keeler spake on exaltation and I followed on the subject. In afternoon I spoke on the setting up of the kingdom and on its peculiar features and characteristics. Bros. Keeler and Napela both spoke. Afterwards went and administered to a sick brother.

18 April 1853 • Monday

Transcribing the revelation on marriage, &c. to send to the brethren on Oahu. Wrote a letter to Bro. Rice, stating that his wife had utterly refused to go with him to the mountains [Utah] and desiring him to forward her a bill of divorce.

19 April 1853 • Tuesday

Finished copying the revelation and wrote a letter to Bro. Lewis and sent them enclosed to Bro. Hammond that he might copy it as I had not time, also desired him to copy a copy for Bro. Woodbury.17

20 April 1853 • Wednesday

Bro. Keeler and I started on our trip.18 I had a horse of Bro. Napela’s; before we started he presented Bro. K. and me a pair of nice pants <apiece,> for which kindness I pray the Lord to bless him. We arrived at Honuaula [Honua‘ula] about three o’clock p.m. and stopped at Mr. Calyer’s. Our road to-day had been a very sandy one a good deal of the way—along the beach.

21 April 1853 • Thursday

Met this morning with a few of the saints—they were in a weak, languid state here and seemed almost entirely destitute of the spirit of the work.19 Ate breakfast and then started; it was steep climbing the hill where our road lay and the <sun> shone powerfully, after about three miles travel we came to Ulupalakua [‘Ulupalakua] where Mr. [Linton] Torbert has a plantation it was <is> a very pretty situation and commands a very fine prospect of the ocean and the surrounding country. After about two miles further <travel> we came to a very bold high hill to the right of the road which from its situation commanded, I should think, a fine few [view] of the surrounding islands, Hawaii [Hawai‘i], Kahoolawe [Kaho‘olawe], Lanai [Lana‘i] and Molokai [Moloka‘i]—I regretted much that we had not time to ascend it—as it was from where we were we had a beautiful view of the ocean, of Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai and a part of this Island, Maui—the sea lay beneath our feet tranquil and beautiful, not a ripple disturbed its serenity—it lay like a sea of glass—two vessels lay at anchor at the small bay below, whose spars and rigging showed well and distinct together with a sail in the distance all combined to make the scene before us look <more> like a beautiful panorama than reality.

In ascending the hill we saw some gullies that had been washed out by the late rains—there was a coat of soil of about four feet in depth upon a bed of clinkers &c. showing very plainly the volcanic origin. After surmounting the hill we came into a region bearing the impress of more recent volcanic action than any part of the island that I have heretofore visited; to the right, toward the sea—the lava lay for miles in breadth & extending several miles inland, black as coal and without a spear of grass or any kind of vegatation to relieve the eye—all a dreary waste—about two miles from the main crater, Haleakala, stood two large hills both containing extinct craters—looking <like> two boils that had continued to vomit forth the remaining matter long after the fires of the main crater had been extinguished.20 Our road for several miles lay thro’ a country considerably covered with lava, containing but few houses and inhabitants—water very scarce and the timber, &c. very scrubby. I saw some specimens of the Wauke tree—the bark of which the Natives convert into (Kapa) cloth—it was the first time I had seen it to recognise it—its leaves bore a slight resemblance to tobacco leaves. This cloth was the only cloth used by the natives formerly and was a tolerable substitute for cotton and woollen cloth—the objections against it are <is> its liability to tear and be spoiled if wet.21—In the road, in several places where the lava had ran down, it presented the appearance of having cooled there as it ran, having small waves in it about as candy would look to be poured out when tolerably cool. We passed thro’ one deep Kanyon—the most stupendous of any thing I have seen on the Islands—it was quite narrow and of considerable depth—the bed of the creek was filled with immense rocks looking like small hills—the sides of the Kanyon were of black rock and showing plainly the formation of the land—from the bed of the creek up to the level of the land were distinctly marked the layers of lava, one on top of another, each successive layer extending farther into the sea than the preceding one.

We passed through the district of Kahikinui which contained a small village, but on the whole it is the most thinly populated of any district on the island. We arrived at Nuu [Nu’u], district of Kaupo about five o’clock, having travelled about 25 miles over very rough road the most of the way, and stopped at the house of Bro. Manu.

I had almost forgot to mention that after leaving Ulupalakua and surmounting the hill we came in sight of the island of Hawaii, the largest in the group—its two mountains, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa were covered with a mantle of snow, especially Mauna Kea whose <white> crest towered above the clouds while by looking carefully the summit of Mauna Loa could also be discerned above the clouds, reminding me very forcibly of home and its snow clad, towering <majestic> mountains. Mauna Kea is said to be 1 [blank] [13,796] feet in height[.]

22 April 1853 • Friday

Arose much refreshed this morning after a comfortable night’s sleep and had a very fine view of the mountain Haleakala—it was full of small fissures and ravines—a light <little> farther on there was a large gap [Kaupo gap] formerly an old outlet for the volcano—seaward from it lay a large bed of lava, being a more recent eruption. The st Nuu is situated in quite a rocky place—their farming land is a short distance from the houses inland—they are built close to the sea. It is a fine grazing country. After breakfast, which consisted of potatoes that being the principal food here, we started to visit some saints that lived about six miles off, and passed thro’ several small settlements and one tolerably sized one named Mokulau; stopped and seen some saints at a place called Waiu, and again at a place called Maalo [Ma‘alo]. About 2 o’clock we arrived at our place of destination, Nuanualoa.

23 April 1853 • Saturday

Held meeting this morning and I preached. We afterwards returned to Nuu, and then in the evening <afternoon> went to meeting at Waiu and I preached and had a very good flow of the spirit.

24 April 1853 • Sunday

We went over to Nuu and I preached and was followed by Bro. Keeler.22 In afternoon attended to the Lord’s supper and preached and I had a very good flow of the spirit.

25 April 1853 • Monday

Reading &c. In afternoon attended meeting at Waiu and had a very good meeting, I gave them a history of the restoration of the church to the earth in these last days through the ministry of angels to Bro. Joseph [Smith], &c., in which they seemed very much interested—I then reasoned with them on the folly of thinking or saying (a thing that some were in the habit of doing) that this church was like the others—and on the folly of the Catholics’ words when they called us a new, young church—that this was the ancient church the Lord having taken the authority, officers, &c. to himself, and had again returned them to the earth together with all the ordinances, pure and plain as in ancient times, through the instrumentality of his prophet Joseph whom wicked men had slain for bearing testimony of these things. That this gospel had been sent among them before they were all wiped out that a remnant might be saved, and if they would not hearken unto this message—they Lord would blot them out—therefore it was highly necessary that as they had joined the church of Christ that they should live pure and holy and forsake every thing evil and seek to do every thing pleasing and good in the sight of the Lord—and endeavor to exalt themselves

26 April 1853 • Tuesday

Started this morning for Kipahulu; after passing Nuanualoa, the place where we stopped on Friday night, we had a few, three or four, deep hollows to pass through which made it tedious travelling, we then travelled thro’ a level pleasant country, rather rocky, tolerably thickly settled; crossed several streams, two of which had good bridges over. Kalo was <raised> considerably here, which was not the case at Kaupo, potatoes being the principal food <there,> they mashed them when warm and then ate them when sour; I liked them much; they get drunk on them very frequently; after standing four days if eaten then in large quantities they will produce drunkenness.23 Water melons are also produced in large quantities in Kaupo. At Kipahulu where we stopped having arrived between one or two clock, there are pine apples growing in abundance—but are not at present ripe.

27 April 1853 • Wednesday

Attended meeting this morning and preached, had good liberty. There were about fourteen or fifteen present—this branch is rather weakly, the teacher is at present absent at Honolulu, and as he is the only officer in the branch who seems to have influence over them—they miss him. I have endeavored to teach all unto whom I have spoken, since I started, with plainness and simplicity in regard to our doctrines that they might begin to understand and see the beauty and excellency of the work of the Lord in preference to man’s. I have also endeavored to set forth unto them the offices of the Holy Spirit—exhorting them to seek after and listen to it that they might be able to know constantly the will of the Lord. The people are ignorant—very ignorant and degraded and it seems as though all their thinking and reasoning faculties were benumbed or that they were so completely shrouded in darkness that light and intelligence cannot penetrate them. It is more and more apparent to me that nothing but the Almighty power of God can ever save this people and bring them to an understanding of the truth;—and my prayer to the Lord is—that His spirit may be poured out upon them that the vail of darkness may be removed or burst, that truth may begin to exert the desired influence,—and that it may be even as in the days of the sons of Mosiah and of Helaman; for O Lord though knowest the trials of thy servants in laboring among this hard hearted and perverse people—thou hast commanded us by thy voice to stay and labor among them, and in obeying thy word we have been blessed and have had joy, we still desire to have joy and to obey thy voice and word at all times and we also desire to see the fruit of our labors upon these lands that our work may not be a fruitless one, but that many of this people may be <ac>counted worthy to attain unto thrones in thy kingdom—may all the toils, sorrow and prayers of thy servants be noticed by thee and had continually in remembrance by thee and be sanctified and made a blessing to this people—forsake not neither forget thou thine Israel O Lord but may they be saved and gathered out from this nation and from all nations by thine outstretched arm of power. Clothe thy servants with the power of thy Holy Priesthood that they may be as flaming fire among dry stubble—that the wicked may tremble and the righteous rejoice. O Lord I desire that my voice may ever be lifted up to thee in behalf of thy Zion,—the honest in heart,—save <them> I beseech thee for the sake of thy well Beloved; my soul is drawn out in behalf of thy people, save them by thy power and may it ever be made manifest for the deliverance of Zion from all her enemies. Listen unto my prayers and also bless and save me, thine unworthy servant, together with all who are near and dear unto me, and grant O Father that we may be crowned in thy celestial kingdom for the sake of Jesus, for thine is the kingdom, the power and glory in worlds without end. Amen. In evening afternoon held meeting and I preached I was supported much by the spirit and we had a good meeting.24

28 April 1853 • Thursday

Held meeting this morning and I again spoke and was blessed with liberty. After breakfast we started for Kawaloa, district of Hana; we had several kanyons to pass thro’ the descents and ascents of which were pretty steep; in one of these valleys, a place called Wailua, there was a select school kept by a Frenchman, a Catholic—their policy apparently is, to educate the young and thus lay a foundation for an influence that they will be able to wield hereafter to accomplish their own designs.

Hana is quite a rocky country, lava scattered over it, but not to such an extent as Kaupo—it is a level country; <sweet> potatoes are raised as the principal article of food; also kalo on dry land. After we arrived at Kawaloa I had quite a conversation with a man of the name of Kaahaaina, a teacher in the other church—he is an intelligent man. I set before him our doctrine and many of our principles and reasoned with him on their consistency and perfect agreement with the scriptures. He assented to all said, and spoke condemnatory of the course their missionary ([Rev. Eliphalet] Whittlesey) had taken; and also said he believed that their church had not the spirit. From Bro. Keeler I learned that he has been quite favorable heretofore, and Bros. K. and Hawkins have had conversations with him. I pray that the Lord will operate upon him by His Holy Spirit and cause him to obey the truth, if he is honest.

We want just such men as he appears to be, scattered thro’ out the branches to take the lead and to exercise a righteous influence over the minds of the people,—my constant desire and prayer to my Almighty Father is, that He will work with us, and order and arrange every thing for the spread of truth and for the salvation of the honest. I realise deeply that man’s wisdom, plans and strength alone, are not sufficient.

29 April 1853 • Friday

Held meeting this morning and had an attentive congregation of about twenty or thirty. I spoke and had a good flow of the spirit. Since I left Wailuku I have experienced more feelings of fear & trepidation when meeting time is near than I have for sometime before—but yet the Lord has been with me and I have enjoyed His Spirit much.

30 April 1853 • Saturday

Held meeting again this morning and was blessed in speaking to the people. In the afternoon a school teacher, a scholar from the High School Lahainaluna, of the name of Paaoao called in. I had a conversation with him on our belief, he listened quite attentively, did not oppose <in the least> anything that I advanced neither did he have much to say—he appears to be a bashful man. I bore my testimony to him of the truth of this work.

Footnotes

  1. [1]Reddick Allred reported that during the day “Elders Cannon, Keeler, Snider, & myself took a morning walk, and drew aside where we united in secrit prayer, praying in turn for the gift of the language, for influence with the natives, and the downfall of [Congregational] missionary influence. . . . We all went to administer to a sick man in the afternoon” (Reddick Allred journal, Apr. 1, 1853).

  2. [2]Crossed out in pencil.

  3. [3]The month and day were added later in pencil.

  4. [4]During the just-completed elder’s conference, Cannon was appointed to translate “elder O. Pratts discourse [on plural marriage] into native or such portions of it as he judged suitable for the natives together [with] such explanations as he deemed neccessary together with the revelation [D&C 132]” (Farrer diary, Mar. 11, 1853). The elders desired to present a correct understanding since “the [Congregationalist] missionaries had got hold of it & were misreppresenting the matter” and “people were talking a good deal about it in the streets &c.” (Reddick Allred journal, Apr. 2, 1853; Farrer diary, May 8, 1853). While the Latter-day Saint missionaries desired the inhabitants of the islands to have a correct understanding of the doctrine, they did not anticipate instituting the principle in the islands. Polygamy had been practiced anciently by the Hawaiians, but legislation had been passed outlawing its practice. In the early 1850s the Hawaiian government was actively prosecuting violators of the law. Additionally, Cannon and his associates did not feel they had the authority to introduce the practice among the Hawaiians. In May 1853 Woodbury wrote, “I preached a while on the plurality of wives sistem proveing and explaining it to them but shewing them that it was for those who were commanded of the Lord and that we had nothing to do with it here” (Woodbury diary, May 22, 1853).

  5. [5]Keeler wrote that “this morning Bro. C . . . spoke from the eleventh chapter of Isa on the standard being raised to the Nations &c dismission one half hour Meeting opened by Bro. C he then called on me to speak I spoke on the principal of truth &c &c. Bro C followed on the same subject” (Keeler journal, Apr. 3, 1853).

  6. [6]Woodbury noted that he “found Bros Cannon, Keeler, Snider and Redic Allred at the house of Bro. Napela. . . . In the evening the brethren sang some of the songs of Zion, and although I was very weary, in body, yet my spirits were cheered up and I felt to rejoice with my brethren” (Woodbury diary, Apr. 4, 1853).

  7. [7]Concerning the day’s events, Woodbury reported: “Spent the day about house, visiting writeing and resting. . . . After dinner [some] wer presented with some letters from their families. Bro. H’s [Hawkins] wer uncheering, bringing inteligence that his wife had married again” (Woodbury diary, Apr. 5, 1853).

  8. [8]The congregation consisted of “some twenty teachers and deacons, and about 300 members” (Woodbury diary, Apr. 6, 1853).

  9. [9]The portion of Cannon’s journal reporting the afternoon meeting is identical to Woodbury’s up to this point, except for the use of first- or third-person language when referring to Cannon.

  10. [10]Keeler reported that Cannon spoke “on the subject of baptism for the dead the spirit of the Lord wrested down on the People” (Keeler journal, Apr. 6, 1853).

  11. [11]After Joseph Smith introduced the practice of fasting as a gospel principle in 1833, the Latter-day Saints observed the practice but on an irregular basis. In April 1852 Brigham Young designated “the first Thursday in each month . . . for the purpose of fasting and prayer, calling on the saints to observe that day” (Young, remarks, Apr. 11, 1852, in “Minutes of the General Conference,” Deseret News, Apr. 17, 1852). The arrival of the new missionaries apparently was the impetus for this change in Hawai‘i. For an in-depth study of this subject, see Wengreen, “Origin and History of the Fast Day in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.”

  12. [12]For written over not.

  13. [13]Cannon reportedly spoke for two hours, and there were “nearly one thousand presant” (Woodbury diary, Apr. 7, 1853; Green diary, Apr. 7, 1853). Portions of the day’s entry for Cannon’s journal and Woodbury’s diary match word for word, except for Cannon’s reference to himself in the first person and his use of more traditional spelling.

  14. [14]Reddick Allred reported Napela’s suggestion for the new missionaries in greater detail: “He said he wanted us to stop with him till we obtained the language for he was better prepared to take care of us than the poor Saints, and he felt that it was his duty to teach us” (Reddick Allred journal, Mar. 24, 1853). Green noted that Napela “wanted that we all should come and live with him and he would give us lessons twice aday to this we redaly consented he sent for Bro Lawson and Allreds” (Green diary, Apr. 9, 1853). Napela wanted to keep the missionaries “in school 2 months & then we might go, for he thought we would begin to talk in that time” (Reddick Allred journal, Apr. 27, 1853). For unspecified reasons the school ceased operation after only a month and the missionaries dispersed to their various fields of labor to master the language on their own. For more than a hundred years following the closing of Napela’s school, Latter-day Saint missionaries continued to learn the language while in their fields of labor. In 1961 formal language training was given to missionaries going to Mexico and Argentina who had been unable to obtain visas for their assigned countries. In 1968 Church leaders determined to give language training to all missionaries prior to their leaving for their assigned fields. Eventually it was decided that two months was the proper length of time needed for most language instruction. For overviews of the missionary training program, see Cowan, Every Man Shall Hear the Gospel in His Own Language; Richard O. Cowan, “Missionary Training Centers,” in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 2:913–14.

  15. [15]The missionaries’ inactivity during the day was explained by Woodbury: “The storm still continues Busying ourselves converseing on principle studying, reading and writeing, while we have the opertunity. . . . Since I have been on this mission I have learned the value of society” (Woodbury diary, Apr. 13, 1853).

  16. [16]Lewis requested that Cannon send a copy of the translation of the revelation on marriage “as soon as possible” (Hammond journal, Apr. 14, 1853).

  17. [17]On this day Kitty Napela was sick, and “Canon laid hans on hur [gave her a blessing] this morning she promest to be baptised if she got well” (Green diary, Apr. 19, 1853).

  18. [18]Green noted that “Bro Canon and Bro Keler started around east Maui to viset the Branches in Bro Kelers field as Bro Keeler has not yit got the language sufficeant to teach them all that he would be glad for them to no thay will probably be gone four weaks” (Green diary, Apr. 20, 1853).

  19. [19]Keeler reported, “Bro. C. spoke to about six or seven members that was all that could bee got to gether” (Keeler journal, Apr. 21, 1853).

  20. [20]Southeast of ‘Ulupalakua is the site of the last volcanic eruption on Maui, estimated to have occurred between 1750 and 1790. Further information can be found in Sterling, Sites of Maui, 224–28.

  21. [21]For many years the inner bark of the wauke tree, better known as the paper mulberry tree, was the principal material used throughout the Pacific Islands for clothing. The bark was removed, soaked until soft, and then beaten to the desired texture, with additional strips added to secure a cloth of the desired size. This bark cloth, which is widely known by the Polynesian word tapa, is called kapa by the Hawaiians, which means “the beaten thing.” For additional information, see Krauss, Plants in Hawaiian Culture, 318; Mitchell, Resource Units in Hawaiian Culture, 118, 214–20.

  22. [22]Cannon preached the first principles of the gospel (Keeler journal, Apr. 24, 1853).

  23. [23]Keeler subsequently took action against Church members at Kaupo for getting drunk from fermented potatoes. Two were cut off, while four confessed their transgressions and were forgiven (Keeler journal, July 12, 1853).

  24. [24]Cannon preached on “their duty to the Lord” (Keeler journal, Apr. 27, 1853).