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August 1851

1 August 1851 • Friday

do. do.

2 August 1851 • Saturday

Held meeting this evening very few in attendance.

3 August 1851 • Sunday

Held meeting to-day, and spoke upon various subjects. The conference to organise the branch was appointed to meet upon Wednesday next.

4 August 1851 • Monday

There was a man of the name of Ka Pono [Kapono] who lived about two miles from here a member of the Calvinistic church, he had some little conversation with me upon the principles—he had first had his attention aroused by Bro. Kaleohano conversing with him on the subject. after his conversation with me he had prayed to the Lord to show him which Church was right and he had a singular dream soon afterwards which he related to me to-day—he said he was looking toward the East and he seen the sun rising above the horizon but it was not brilliant as the sun it had a small light spot in the centre and all around this spot was dark shortly afterwards in looking toward the East again he beheld another sun rising but it had no dark spot about it was all light and brilliancy, while looking and wondering at this, a person came to him and told him that this was a representation of these two churches [Congregational and Latter-day Saint];—the first had a little light but the major part was darkness—and the other was a representation of the Church of Christ all light and brilliancy without any blemish all purity. He afterwards thought their came a strong wind and broke his house he was in considerable distress about it while in this situation he seen me approaching with a palapala in my hand to him1 I conversed with him & cheered him and told him to pray to God; I thought upon hearing this dream that the Lord had answered his prayer and had given him a plain manifestation of the true church.

5 August 1851 • Tuesday

Showery this afternoon.

6 August 1851 • Wednesday

Met according to appointment—I was blessed with considerable of the spirit—Bro. Kaleohano was appointed clerk—There were two ordained teachers—Bro. Kaleohano and Bro. Maiola—There were three deacons ordained—Bro. Pake Bro. Kahiki and Bro. Mahoe.2

7 August 1851 • Thursday

I [had] been thinking some days back of taking a trip to Lahaina to get letters as I was somewhat in hopes that I might have some news from home by this time. Bro. Kaleohano loaned me [a] horse. I arrived in Lahaina by sundown—my feelings upon riding into town this time were not as they had been on former occasions then I could picture to myself the smiling faces of the brethren with feelings of pleasure to greet me—now I rode in a stranger in the midst of strangers—these feelings were soon dispelled upon riding up to the house of Nalimanui by the warm reception I met with from the folks. The brother of N. [Jonathan Napela] with his wife was there they having just arrived from Honolulu—he said he had a letter from Bro. Bigler to me and that there was one in the Post Office.

8 August 1851 • Friday

Went down this morning to the Custom Office and obtained Bro. B’s letter—he was well and in good spirits he was progressing slowly in the language—he said he thought Bro. Wm. [Farrer] would be able to preach in a few weeks he had some good progress. His host Mr. Maikai had not received my letter that I had written to him neither had they received the letter I had written to them—I had put three letters in one e[n]velope, Mr. M’s and theirs and Bro. W. & D’s [Whittle and Dixon] to me Bro. W’s they had received the others were missing—this was singular to me as in case the letters were all directed inside of the envelope and if it should be torn they would arrive at their destination—I think there has been some trickery about these letters. Bro. B. was residing at a place called Koolau [Ko‘olau] about 9 or 10 miles from Honolulu with a friend of Mr. M’s3 he should reside there he said about a month and then return to H.; Bro. Wm. was on the other side of the Island.—This afternoon I went and seen some white men that Bro. K. [Keeler] had conversed with while living in Lahaina he had left his voice of Warning with them—I found them very cool on the subject of the Gospel. I Saturday wrote two letters to-day one to Bro’s. Bigler & Farrer and one to Bro. Hawkins. I was disappointed by not receiving any letters from home.

9 August 1851 • Saturday

Before leaving this morning Nalimanui offered me a dollar which I refused telling her that she was a widow and to keep it, it would not be right for me to take money from her—she said she done it because of her love to me I told her that was already very apparent to me as she had treated me from the first as if I was her son—I said I had asked the Lord to bless her for it, and he would do it. Her son-in-law Jose a spaniard was also quite kind to me. I started this morning and arrived at Waiakoa after dark.

10 August 1851 • Sunday

Held meeting this morning I felt weak and hemahema in the language I called upon the Lord to assist me, and I had my prayers answered and had a good flow of the spirit. I preached upon the first principles. There were two requested to be baptised a man and a woman, it was proposed to wait until after the afternoon meeting as the water was some distance in consequence of the drought. Held meeting in the afternoon the brethren bearing their testimony to the truth of the doctrines—one Bro. Maiola said he was a teacher in that [Congregational] Church but he said that it was a hypocritical Church fair upon the outside but rotten within—this he had proved. Attended to the baptism—the young man had been educated in the Calvin church here—but afterwards joined the Catholics, he had been imprisoned and ill used and finally tried before the king [Kamehameha III] for joining the Catholics it being the commencement of their operations here—the king had dismissed him not finding anything in him that came within the scope of the laws—he was quite notorious all over the islands for this thing he had been a school teacher for the Calvinists and afterwards for the Catholics.

11 August 1851 • Monday

Started this morning Bros. Kaleohano, and two others of the brethren for Koolau, the roads were very dusty for about six miles. Afterwards the roads were not dusty nor miry as they were when we returned, on account of our late start, night overtook us a good distance from Keanae but the moon arose about an hour after sunset and made it pleasant travelling upon arriving at Honomanu we stopped at the house of Bro. Kinolau and eat they had gone to bed when we arrived but arose and prepared food for us. We arrived at Keanae towards midnight. They were all glad to see us; the luna here had returned from Hana they had forbid him consenting to us having the house and had condemned him for letting us have it before; a Native preacher who had been educated at the High School at Lahainaluna told the people that we were a Church without a head as our head [Joseph Smith] had been killed &c. &c. It was nothing very serious his opposition as I expect.4 They Judge had taken the office of constable from those who had joined the Church who held that office <&> had tried to get them to forsake the Church;—there were some very weak on account of the opposition and some they told had turned.5

12 August 1851 • Tuesday

Tired from the effects of yesterday’s travel.

13 August 1851 • Wednesday

Baptised and confirmed three to-day, two of them members of the Calvinistic Church, one a luna in the Church and a man very much respected: This morning I started for Wailua about two miles as I expected they were rather weak up there.6 Held meeting there in the afternoon had a good flow of the spirit. I went and seen the lunas there to get the privilege of preaching in the Meeting House but they refused for fear of getting into difficulty.

14 August 1851 • Thursday

Meeting twice to-day morning and evening. baptised two young men.

15 August 1851 • Friday

Bro. Namakaiona came with a horse for me to return early this morning. after morning meeting returned with him. The folks at Honomanu had requested several of them to be baptised I therefore thought it best to go there they proposed for us to go in a canoe as there were several bad hills to climb. Bro. Keeler accompanied me—they Catholics had a meeting and a fast to-day—the luna of the Calvinistic Church had gone and there was no one there that could dispose of the Meeting House—I thought I would go and see the Catholic lunas—I accordingly went up to their Meeting House and spoke to them about getting their Meeting House—they said they would propose it to the brethren and after they had finished their meeting which would be short I could have it. I went in and they gave me a seat—the luna then commenced the meeting by exhorting the people and said that I had requested the Meeting House—after he had got thro’ they knelt in rows before the altar with a crucifix suspended above the altar and one man knelt he commenced and they all repeated after him with their eyes fixed upon the crucifix it reminded me of the saying in the Scriptures this people worship me with their lips while their hearts are far off.7 After a long string of prayers to Mary &c. &c. they ceased and sat down; and two others arose and exhorted. They then knelt again and repeated their prayers again. They then told me I was at liberty to baptise preach. I spoke upon the first principles of the gospel and showed the necessity of the Lord again revealing his will to man with the pure principles of the Gospel. The[y] listened very attentively to all I had to say—I then gave an invitation to all who wished to be baptised to come forward. Bro. Keeler officiated and baptised five and afterwards confirmed them.8 Bro. Kinolau prepared dinner for us and we eat.

In returning Bro. K. [Keeler] was sick at his stomach, but did not vomit. This afternoon a meeting of the boys and young men having been appointed by Bro. Kaleohano I attended and listened with pleasure and gratification to their remarks—they spoke well and to the point—they do not seem to have the bashfulness to contend with that the white boys have as a general thing. I felt the spirit very much.

16 August 1851 • Saturday

Baptised 12 to-day afterwards returned and confirmed them under the bowery constructed by the brethren and sisters for the purpose of meeting.9—While confirming I was seized with a sudden sickness and faintness and could scarcely stand—I felt very unwell indeed. In the afternoon there came a young woman accompanied by Bro. Kaleohano to be baptised Bro. K. said he had explained the principles to her. Bro. Keeler went and baptised her and afterwards I confirmed her. A meeting this evening I exhorted the Saints to put away every thing that was wrong far from them and if they had sinned any of them one to another to ask forgiveness and eat the Lord’s feast with pure hearts &c.

17 August 1851 • Sunday

Had meeting at daylight in the morning, the brethren spoke around and added a few remarks. Held a10 meeting this morning a good many in attendance I spoke upon the gathering of Israel and of the works of the Lord in the last days, it was a weak attempt I had to pull every thing out that I said it did not come easy. The only way that I could account for it was I had made up in my own mind yesterday what subject I would speak upon—and the Lord had left me to my own strength to show me my weakness. It is a fact I have proved it to my satisfaction that I cannot preach this gospel unless assisted by the Almighty. During the intermission11 baptised 15 they were principally Catholics. Met in afternoon and confirmed them—it threatened to be rainy in the afternoon I told the saints to pray that the Lord would bless us with pleasant weather—we then administered the Sacrament and the brethren spoke their feelings. We were blessed with fine weather and dismissed the meeting—soon afterwards it commenced raining and did not cease all the evening.12

18 August 1851 • Monday

To day had been appointed for a conference to organise the branches—13as I forgot to mention that we received a note on Saturday by a native from three of the brethren at Lahaina whose names were Bros. P. [Philip] B. Lewis, [Francis A.] Hammond and [John S.] Woodbury—it was dated Monday, Aug. 11th, it said they had been appointed a mission to these Islands and they wished to see us as soon as possible14 it was with feelings of delight that cannot be easily described that we received this news—and in consequence of this letter we thought it advisable to hold the conference to-day (Monday) and start for Lahaina to-morrow.15 I spoke upon the organization of the church the 6th of April, 1830 with six members and of its spread and explained the commencement of it, Joseph’s visions and concerning the Book of Mormon and the Urim and Thummim and proved its uses from the scripture &c. I <was> blessed with a great deal of the spirit and the congregation were much affected at times—I explained to them the remark made by the native who spoke about these things at Hana that we were a church without a head I told [them] that our head was Jesus Christ but that we had a head upon the earth now [Brigham Young] who stood as Peter did formerly to receive revelations &c. &c. and every thing necessary to guide the Church aright.—We then organized the conference and appointed Bro. Kaleohano clerk—there were four branches organized Keanae, Wailua, Waianu, Honomanu, there were three teachers appointed—two Bros. Paulo Mawaewa [Maewaewa], & Namakaiona for Keanae one Bro. Kapapu for Wailua;—there were ten deacons appointed—three, Bros. Kuaana, Kekahuna, Kaihu, for Keanae;—two, Bros. Hawele, and Kaluawahinenui for Wailua;—two, Bro’s. Kaleo and Kanepaike for Waianu;—two, Bros. Kinolau, and Kekahuna for Honomanu;—one, Bro. Waiwaiole for a small settlement inland that were organised in the Keanae branch I instructed the brethren in their offices &c. and exhorted [them] to forsake the use of Tobacco &c. and set examples to the Church.16 This morning before meeting we had rain and although it looked very threatening during the time of the meeting yet it kept off until after meeting was dismissed. Since the receipt of the letter from the brethren at Lahaina I have been very anxious to start to meet with them. Bro. Lewis I am some little acquainted with, Bro. Hammond I know by sight but have no acquaintance with him, and Bro. Woodbury I may know but do not know by name. Bro. H. is an old resident upon these islands, left here for California and there joined the Church and went from there to the Valley and married in the fall of 1848 since which time he has been residing there.

19 August 1851 • Tuesday

Started this morning for Lahiana, roads were tolerably good and it was a warm pleasant morning. Stopped at Honomanu at the house of Bro. Kinolau and eat—Bro. Ehu accompanied us from Keanae to take care of Bro. Keeler’s horse;—we arrived at Waiakoa about sun-down the animals were weak. They appeared glad to see us.

20 August 1851 • Wednesday

Bro. Keeler met a man yesterday that he was acquainted with who told him that they [the new elders] had their families with them—this if anything heightened our anxiety to see them—altho’ we thought that they would have some trials to contend with and would have need of the spirit of the Lord to assist them.—This morning we started by break of day—Bro. Kaleohano furnished me with a fresh horse—we rode carefully as Bro. K’s horse and Bro. Ehu’s were rather weak, we arrived in Lahaina about 4 o’clock—Bro. E put up at his brother-in-law’s and took charge of our horses we changed our shirts and started to seek the brethren—we enquired of a native that we met in the street—he said that he had not heard of the arrival of the strangers but he had seen Bro. Bigler landing from the Kaluna with some other white men. We were surprised a little at this as we had no idea of seeing him here we thought it best to go to Nalimanui’s as we thought it very likely that Hy. would be apt to go there if he came to Lahaina—They had not seen him, but said they knew of two white women having come to Lahaina—Hoohuli accompanied us to their house and we greeted with pleasure—Bro’s. Lewis, Bigler, Hammond, Farrer and Woodbury, as well as Sisters [Jane] Lewis and [Mary Jane] Hammond—Sis. H. recognised me as soon as I came in the yard—she being an old acquaintance a friend of my sister Anne’s. Bro. Woodbury had left his wife [Elvira Woodbury] at the coast for want of means and as [s]he was not very well it was thought best for him to come—and she would be able to follow him shortly. Bro. & Sis. H. had a fine little boy about 11 months old [Francis, Jr.]—it done me a great deal of good to look upon the faces of the brethren and sisters.—After writing us the letter Bros. L. & H. had gone to Oahu [O‘ahu] to find the brethren there—and had returned this afternoon <with Bro’s. Bigler & Farrer>—they were considerably disappointed at not finding us here. I received lots of letters and papers [newspapers] from home with a daguerreotype likeness of my Elizabeth [Hoagland],17 and my sister Elizabeth with which I was much pleased[.] E.18 has grown [into] a fine girl and is very pretty—it made me feel peculiar to gaze upon this likeness and read the letters and the newspapers—I felt that I would return an almost entire stranger to my folks and to almost every thing in the Valley. The brethren bring word that Bro. P. [Parley] P. Pratt is in San Francisco with part of his family—he has come out as Pres. of the Pacific Mission and will probably sail to Chili after awhile.19 Bro’s. Amasa Lyman and Chas. [Charles] C. Rich has come out with a colony to Lower California.20 Bro. H. Clarke [Hiram Clark] was in San Francisco having left Tahiti in company with Bros. [Thomas] Tompkins and [Joseph] Busby—they reports matters as in rather an unfavorable state there in consequence of the interference of the French Government.21 Bro. [Hiram] Blackwell was also in San Francisco;—he and Bro. Clarke both joined in crying down [decrying] the Islands—Bro. B. said we would have to leave—we would have to work to make a living &c. &c. Bro. F. [Farrer] had baptised two men upon Oahu;—Bro. B. [Bigler] was still very backward in the language. His host Mr. Maikai wrote me a letter.—I received a letter from Aunt [Leonora] and Mary Ann [Taylor];—two from Charles and Mary Alice [Lambert] with a few lines in one written by Anne [Cannon] <;—> one from Anne; two from Bro. [Joseph] Cain with newspapers [Deseret News] from Aug 17th/50 to Mar. 8/51 inclusive;22—one from Angus [Cannon] written from Little Salt Lake Valley he having gone there with a company under Bro. Geo. [George] A. Smith to make a settlement;23—one from Elizabeth [Hoagland];24 one from Chauncy [Chauncey] W. West;—and one from Bro. C. C. Rich San Francisco, Cal.—the last dates from home were June 8th, one from Chas. and one from Bro. Cain—Anne had had an attack of the cholera morbus25 but was recovering.—I expect there will be considerable disappointment at my not returning this fall—their minds all seem to be set upon my coming back this fall. Uncle [John Taylor] is not coming back until next fall26—they are considerably disappointed at receiving this news as they have made every calculation upon his return this fall. (51) [1851] Bro. Cain writes me good counsel and I was pleased to see that I have the same spirit as my brethren—he says as it is my first mission and I should see that the good of the cause demanded it, if he were me he would stay and endeavor to do something before returning—David [H. Cannon] is working in the Printing office.27 Leonora [Cannon] is small but smart. My step-mother and husband [Mary Edwards White Cannon Taylor and Charles B. Taylor] have arrived in the Valley; she is the mother of two boys [Charles E. and Thomas E. Taylor] by her present husband. Bro. Cain has charge of the Printing and Post Office—Bro. A. [Arieh] C. Brower is in the Printing Office.

21 August 1851 • Thursday

We arose this morning and repaired to the beach as it was thought best yesterday evening to renew our covenants, and be baptised; Bro. L—baptised me;—we returned ate breakfast and then attended to the confirming. We afterwards talked matters over in regard to the mission. Bro. P. B. Lewis had been appointed by Bro. Pratt as Pres. of this mission to fill the place of Bro. Clarke.28 He said his feelings prompted him to stay in Lahaina—Bro. Hammond was an old resident of Lahaina and had brought leather &c. along with him; he had some thoughts of sending to Honolulu to get a man to take charge of a shop and do the shoemaking and Bro. H. find the stock;—he thought that his share of the proceeds would support him. It was thought advisable for Bro. Woodbury to go to Hawaii as a companion for Bro. Hawkins. It was thought best for Bro’s. Bigler and Farrer to stay upon Oahu;—and for Bro. Keeler and me to stay where we had been laboring.29

22 August 1851 • Friday

Bro. K. started back with his companion this morning;—I thought I would stay over Sunday, as the brethren were going to have a meeting and <to> preach to the Whites. Bro. Bigler also concluded to go this afternoon as there was a vessel going to Honolulu. Bro. Wm. F. [Farrer] thought he would stay until Monday as there was a vessel going to sail then.

23 August 1851 • Saturday

Pasted up notices through town to-day appointing a meeting for Sunday at the house of Mr. [James] Kipp;—Bro’s. Lewis & Hammond had been to see Mr. [Rev. Dwight] Baldwin about the Bethel but he did not consider himself at liberty to let them have the Bethel as he said he did not believe it was customary for them to do so in the States.30

24 August 1851 • Sunday

Went to hear Mr. B. preach in Native it was principally upon the evils of whoredom &c. &c. there was nothing very edifying:—we stayed until near our own time of meeting and then returned. There was a tolerable attendance; Bro. Lewis preached he was laboring under a severe cold and did not feel like preaching—but done very well considering that it was his first attempt before a congregation. After he had got thro’ he gave the congregation the privilege of asking questions one man commenced and went on at a great rate about Joe. Smith and the gold plates &c. &c.; he appeared to have a little liquor in him. As it was likely to break up in a row Bro. L. dismissed the meeting.—We all felt bad at the result of the meeting as there was anything but a good spirit in the house and we were afraid that they would not come to hear again. After returning to the house, we united in prayer and felt to request the Lord to bless us this afternoon in endeavoring to set forth the principles of truth. Bro. Lewis thought I had better try and speak this afternoon. We met at 4 o’clock and had an attendance about like the morning. I spoke upon the first principles of the Gospel and was blest with a good flow of the spirit—the man that commenced asking questions in the morning broke in upon <me> in the middle of my discourse—I told him to sit still that I believed this meeting was for me—that if he had anything to say he would please wait until I got thro’—he then sat quiet until I was nearly thro’—he commenced again—I called upon Mr. Kipp to put a stop to his noise—Judge Parsons also told him he must be quiet or they should certainly dispose of him in a way that would be anything but agreeable—he then sat quiet until meeting was over. After I got thro’ Bro. Hammond told his reasons for joining the Church and also bore his testimony to the truth of the work. We then sung and I dismissed the meeting. There seemed to be a good feeling this afternoon—we all felt the spirit more sensibly than we had after the disturbance of the morning.

25 August 1851 • Monday

Writing home to Aunt to-day,31 also a letter to Bro. Parley [Pratt];32—and one to Bro. Hawkins by request of Bro. Lewis. Bro. Wm. left this afternoon for Honolulu Bro. Hammond and I accompanied him down to the beach—the Collector of the Port came and told us that there were two letters in the Office for me from California. One was from Bro. Cain it was dated April 11th—there was no news of any importance worthy of noting here. The other was written by Bro. [John] Dixon from Greenwood Valley—he was well and endeavoring Bro. W. [Thomas Whittle] & him and in fact all the brethren to get ready to return the 1st of Sept. to the Valley—they had received my first lot of letters directed for the Valley and had forwarded them.

This evening Bro. Hammond and myself waited upon Mr. Baldwin and conversed until after ten upon various subjects of our doctrine I had understood that a gentleman had said that he was [the] most non-committal man that he ever conversed with. We thought that it was the case for he seemed to weigh every word and if we got upon any thing that he did not consider tenable—he would contrive to waive the subject.

26 August 1851 • Tuesday

I made ready to return this morning—I felt bad to part with the brethren and sisters—it seemed like leaving home—after living as I had been used to and associating with sisters of my own color and habits—it made it somewhat of a trial for me to return and mix with the Natives and conform to their manner of living again—but I was am laboring for a liberal master who knows that my motives are pure, and that my desire is to bring this people to a knowledge of the great and important principles of life and salvation and exalt them from their present debased state.—But it needs patience and perseverance in us and I do feel to request my Heavenly Father to enable <me> to labor without being discouraged at the obstacles that I may have to contend with.33 Bro. H. [Francis Hammond] and I administered to Bro. [Philip] Lewis before leaving as he was very unwell from the effects of his cold. Bro. H. accompanied me to where my horse was. I have not felt the pangs of parting more severe than I did this morning since I left home. Arrived at Waiakoa about eight o’clock. The folks were all well and appeared much rejoiced to see me.

27 August 1851 • Wednesday

Held meeting this afternoon; before meeting went and <baptised> five—four women and one man.

28 August 1851 • Thursday

Engaged variously to-day writing in Journal &c.

29 August 1851 • Friday

do. do.

30 August 1851 • Saturday

Wrote a letter a very long one to Bro. C. [Charles] C. Rich Pueblo de los Angeles, Cal.

31 August 1851 • Sunday

Spoke this morning upon the prophecies in regard to Zion and gave short account of the news I had received concerning the spread and increase of the work—baptised 12—males 8; females 4—in afternoon attended to the confirmation and the Lord’s supper—I gave the saints considerable instruction and exhorted them to persevere and to forsake everything evil.


  1. [1]In general terms, a palapala is any type of written or printed record, such as a letter, certificate, or book. It was also used specifically to refer to the scriptures.

  2. [2]This first Latter-day Saint branch in the Hawaiian Islands, organized at Waiakoa, was known as the Kula Branch. Deacon, teacher, and priest are offices in the Aaronic Priesthood, also known as the lesser or preparatory priesthood, of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Those who fulfill the offices of the Aaronic Priesthood prepare themselves for the greater responsibilities and rights of the Melchizedek Priesthood, also known as the greater priesthood, which includes the offices of elder, seventy, and high priest. Each office has specific responsibilities, and as individuals advance in priesthood office, they retain all the rights and duties of lower offices. Both deacons and teachers have responsibility “to warn, expound, exhort, and teach, and invite all to come unto Christ,” but teachers are also charged “to watch over the church” and to take the lead of meetings if there is no priest or Melchizedek Priesthood holder present. A priest can baptize, bless the sacrament (communion), and ordain priests, deacons, and teachers. Men with the Melchizedek Priesthood have the authority to confer the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands, to give blessings, including healing the sick, and to ordain others to that priesthood. Elder is the most commonly conferred office in that priesthood. Historically, seventies were given responsibility to serve as missionaries. This is the priesthood office George Q. Cannon held when he served his mission to Hawai‘i. (The office of seventy is now held only by certain senior leaders of the Church.) The primary responsibility of high priests is to oversee the administration of the Church organization. For additional information, see the following articles in Encyclopedia of Mormonism: VerDon W. Ballantyne, “Aaronic Priesthood,” 1:1–4; Ronald L. Bramble, “Deacon, Aaronic Priesthood,” 1:361; R. Richard Vetterli, “Elder, Melchizedek Priesthood,” 2:447–48; Alan K. Parrish, “Seventy: Overview,” 3:1300–1301; A. L. Richards, “High Priest,” 2:587–88; Jae R. Ballif, “Melchizedek Priesthood,” 2:882–85; W. Ladd Hollist, “Priest, Aaronic Priesthood,” 3:1132–33; Bruce T. Harper, “Priesthood Offices,” 3:1143–44; Jack R. Christianson, “Teacher, Aaronic Priesthood,” 4:1441.

  3. [3]Ko‘olau is the Hawaiian term for the windward, or northern, side of an island. On O‘ahu and Maui, Ko‘olau also referred to designated land districts. On Maui, the Ko‘olau land district includes Ke‘anae, Wailua, and the surrounding area along the northeastern side of Haleakala.

  4. [4]Following expect are fourteen additional undecipherable words that have also been crossed out.

  5. [5]The severity of the opposition caused Keeler to write following Cannon’s arrival: “I was glad to see him. . . . I have had a hard time with the bretheren since he left here because of eavle reports that have been circulated by eavle desining men” (Keeler journal, Aug. 11, 1851).

  6. [6]After receiving word on August 4 that some at Wailua “ware dowting,” Keeler concluded to “gow and see them to day and try to strengthen them if I could until Brother Cannon returned” (Keeler journal, Aug. 4, 1851).

  7. [7]Isaiah 29:13: “Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men.”

  8. [8]Keeler “baptised them after a sort found myself mutch fritened for fear that I should not say the cerimony right” (Keeler journal, Aug. 15, 1851).

  9. [9]No longer able to use the Congregationalist meetinghouse, the Latter-day Saints constructed a lanai (bowery) earlier in the week under which to meet and were “talkin of building a meeting house” (Keeler journal, Aug. 11, 1851).

  10. [10]Following this word, an undecipherable five-letter word has been crossed out.

  11. [11]Corrected in pencil from intercession.

  12. [12]Keeler recorded additional details regarding the day’s meetings: “This morning Brother C spoke on the seting up of the Kingdom of god in the Last days he spoke tolerable well in the afterknoon we administered the sacrement to about one hundred and Ninety members” (Keeler journal, Aug. 17, 1851).

  13. [13]In the left margin next to his August 16 entry, Cannon inserted a cross along with the words see next page. At this point in his August 18 entry, he again inserted a cross.

  14. [14]Lewis noted that when the newly arrived missionaries reached Lahiana, they “expected to find the Brethren who preceded us the year before. . . . We met with an old acquaintance of Bro Hammonds who knew where one of our Brethren was and that there was a native going directly to him and if I wished could send a note by him. I availed my self of the opportunity, and addressed a letter to the Mormon Elders, and it fortunately fell into the hands of Bro Cannon” (Lewis journal, [Aug. 1851]).

  15. [15]Upon learning of the arrival of the new missionaries, Keeler and Cannon concluded to organize branches of the Church before they left for Lahaina (Keeler journal, Aug. 17, 1851).

  16. [16]Keeler reported that Cannon “spoke well the peoples eyes ware filled with tears they felt to rejoise in the truth” and that “it was near night” before they finished ordaining and instructing the officers (Keeler journal, Aug. 18, 1851).

  17. [17]Originally written as E—, then filled in later.

  18. [18]This is likely Elizabeth Hoagland, although it could refer to George’s sister Elizabeth.

  19. [19]When Pratt was called as president of the Pacific Mission earlier in the year, he was given responsibility for “all the islands and coasts of the Pacific” (Parley P. Pratt to Addison Pratt, July 26, 1851, in Pratt, Autobiography, 429). On September 5, 1851, he and his wife Phoebe, along with missionary Rufus Allen, left San Francisco for Chile, arriving at Valparaiso on November 8. On March 2, 1852, the Pratts sailed for San Francisco, Parley giving as a reason “the civil wars and my own pecuniary circumstances, but more particularly the want of language” (Pratt to Brigham Young, Mar. 13, 1852, BYOF). For additional information on Pratt’s mission to Chile, see Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, 414–51; Palmer and Grover, “Hoping to Establish a Presence”; Palmer, “Establishing the LDS Church in Chile”; Tullis, “California and Chile in 1851 as Experienced by the Mormon Apostle Parley P. Pratt”; Givens and Grow, Parley P. Pratt, 290, 293, 303–13.

  20. [20]By 1850 Brigham Young envisioned a series of Latter-day Saint settlements stretching from the Great Basin to the Pacific, which have come to be known as the Mormon Corridor. Young wanted Church members in these settlements to assist Latter-day Saint immigrants as they made their way from California to Salt Lake City. In February 1851, Amasa M. Lyman and Charles C. Rich were appointed to preside over the affairs of the Church in southern California and to establish a colony there. The following month, a company of Saints under their direction left Utah for California, where they settled San Bernardino. For discussions of the Mormon Corridor and the founding of Mormon San Bernardino, see Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom, 85–88; Campbell, Establishing Zion, 73–88; Lyman, San Bernardino; Wood, “Mormon Settlement in San Bernardino.”

  21. [21]Latter-day Saint missionaries Thomas Tompkins and Joseph Busby landed on the island of Tubuai in October 1850. Like Addison Pratt and James Brown, who arrived in the Society Islands earlier in the year, these missionaries had to agree to a number of conditions that the government had recently implemented relating to foreigners. One stipulation required them to certify that they could provide for their own living expenses. The policy that islanders could not support foreigners created a problem for missionaries expecting to proselytize without purse or scrip. As a result both Busby and Tompkins, with their families, returned to the United States, with Tompkins appointed to seek financial support and to look for a possible “gathering place in Lower California for the Polynesian Saints” (Ellsworth and Perrin, Seasons of Faith and Courage, 20–23; Britsch, Unto the Islands of the Sea, 17).

  22. [22]The Deseret News was first published in Salt Lake City on June 15, 1850, while Cannon was in the California gold fields. During most of Cannon’s Hawaiian mission the newspaper was a weekly, although paper shortages suspended its operation for a period of time in 1851. Later during Cannon’s mission, the newspaper on occasion was published only every two or three weeks. For overviews of the Deseret News, see Ashton, Voice in the West; McLaws, Spokesman for the Kingdom.

  23. [23]Little Salt Lake Valley derived its name from a seasonal, shallow, brackish sink that became a salt flat during the dry season. In January 1851 the Latter-day Saints established a town east of the Little Salt Lake, which they named Parowan. It became one of the principal towns of the Mormon Corridor, in addition to supporting the creation of an Iron Mission established in the area. For a history of Parowan, see Dalton, History of the Iron County Mission and Parowan; Seegmiller, History of Iron County. Cannon was familiar with the area, having camped near the Little Salt Lake in October 1849 while on his way to California (Landon, To California in ’49, 27–28).

  24. [24]Originally written E—, then filled in later in pen.

  25. [25]Cholera morbus was a term used to describe gastrointestinal diseases that resembled cholera.

  26. [26]John Taylor was called to help open the French Mission in October 1849. Taylor and his companions arrived in France in June 1850, and six months later they organized a branch of eight members in Paris. Under Taylor’s direction, Curtis E. Bolton began translating the Book of Mormon into French while George P. Dykes commenced work on a German translation. In December 1851, Taylor was released as president of the mission, returning to the Salt Lake Valley in August 1852. For additional information on Taylor’s mission, see Roberts, Life of John Taylor, 203–41; Taylor, Kingdom or Nothing, 146–68; Gibbons, John Taylor, 106–33; Chard, “History of the French Mission,” 5–28.

  27. [27]By September 1849 a printing press arrived in Salt Lake City. In January 1850 it was operating in a building known as the Mint (situated on South Temple Street east of the current Joseph Smith Memorial Building), where gold mined in California was transformed into Mormon gold pieces. Among the items printed on the press at this location was the first issue of the Deseret News. The press was subsequently moved into the Council House, located on the southwest corner of South Temple and East Temple (now Main) streets, where it remained until November 1851. It was later moved into the Tithing Office situated just west of the Mint on the northeast corner of East Temple and South Temple, where the Joseph Smith Memorial Building now stands.

  28. [28]Pratt had appointed Lewis to be president because he was “the oldest member of the mission” (Lewis journal, Aug. 1851).

  29. [29]Although Hawkins had not yet arrived from the Big Island, the decision was made to proceed with their meeting. When Lewis asked for an overview of the mission, Cannon reported a membership of 214 on Maui, including 5 teachers and 13 deacons. He further noted that these members belonged to 5 branches: Waiakoa, Ke‘anae, Wailua, Waianu, and Honomanu. Additionally, 2 members had been baptized on O‘ahu by Farrer, making in all 216 members (Philip B. Lewis to Parley P. Pratt, Sept. 1, 1851, Pratt Collection). The new missionaries found the report “astonishing,” having not anticipated that the “elders who were most forward in the language could even talk in common conversation so as to be understoo[d] . . . and had no idea that preaching had commenced” (Bigler diary, Hawaiian Honolulu Mission Manuscript History excerpts, Aug. 17, 1851). Lewis recounted that the missionaries’ success “was very cheerey news and caused us all to rejoice. The instruction from Bro Pratt was that we all keep together until we got a knowledge of the language, but finding that the Brethren had all scattered out before we got here, and that they had all made a good proficiency in the language particularly Bro Cannon, who the natives say speaks it better than the oldest [Congregationalist] missionaries, I counciled them to stay where they where [were]” (Lewis journal, Aug. 1851). Farrer was more succinct concerning Cannon’s abilities: “Bro. C. is able to speak the native fluently” (Farrer diary, Aug. 20, 1851).

  30. [30]According to Lewis, he and Hammond had “called on the Rev Mr Baldwin to have an interview with him but finding him busy we merely asked the privilege of Preaching in the Bethel as M Taylor the former Pastor had gone to Oahu to preach and the Bethel was vacant. he replied that Mr. Taylor had allowed the Mormons to preach in it and on conditions that they should not ask for it again and he did not therefore feel at liberty to to [sic] grant the privelege but remarked that if Bro Hammond was of the same persuasion that he was when here before he should not hesitate to let us have it. We then went to a Messrs Kipp & Antonio who owned a house together & they offered us the use of their house and we wrote and put up notices accordingly” (Lewis journal, [Aug. 21, 1851]).

  31. [31]See Appendix 2, Item 6.

  32. [32]See Appendix 2, Item 7.

  33. [33]Comments critical of Hawaiian homes and the native manner of living can frequently be found in the writings of haole observers during the nineteenth century. For example, the Reverend Lorenzo Lyons described native homes as “rude hovels” shared equally by humans and domestic animals, including pigs (as cited in Grimshaw, “New England Missionary Wives, Hawaiian Women,” 89). After they lived among the Hawaiians, almost all of the Latter-day Saint missionaries wrote comments similar to Cannon’s. Nevertheless, such concerns did not stop them from living with the natives. Thomas Karren observed that “to Mingle with them and pertake of their filth would Trie the Stoutest heart. Except a Mormon preacher and it tries them pretty well” (Karren journal, Feb. 18, 1854; see also Johnson diary, Mar. 24, 1853).