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Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood, Diary Entries for May 1880–September 1883 (Excerpts)

Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood, Diary entries, May 11, 1880–Sept. 30, 1883 (excerpts); microfilm; Jane H. Blood Diaries, 1880–1898, pp. 9–15, 17, 19, 21–23, 25–31, 37–38, 54–55, 68–70, 72–74, 78–79, CHL (MS 8842).

See images of the original document at

Jane Wilkie Hooper arrived in Kaysville, Utah, as a ten-year-old with her parents in 1855. Young Jane made close friendships in Kaysville that she “hated to leave” when the family relocated to Ogden, about fifteen miles north, in the late 1850s. But her absence was only temporary. After marrying William Blood, she returned to Kaysville, where she became a central figure in the Relief Society for many decades. She noted that on May 14, 1868, “the Female Relief Society was organized in Kaysville. . . . Mary Woolley and I were [visiting] teachers. I worked in the Relief Society as secretary and later as a counselor until 1898.”1 During the era covered by the diary excerpts below, Blood also served as ward Relief Society treasurer. In addition, when Eliza R. Snow organized a Primary Association in Kaysville on September 18, 1879, Blood became Primary president at the bishop’s suggestion.2 These excerpts from her diary give insight into the functioning of the Relief Society and the Primary Association on a local level and the role they played in Blood’s life.3

The Kaysville Relief Society was organized in the midst of efforts by church leaders to establish the silk industry in Utah, and Blood and other women embraced the enterprise. In the 1850s and 1860s, Brigham Young repeatedly encouraged Latter-day Saints to participate in silk production,4 but many Saints remained apathetic. Major progress came in the late 1860s after Young appointed George D. Watt, his shorthand reporter, “to travel throughout the Territory and lecture on Silk culture, and also to organize societies for the cultivation of silk.”5 In 1875 church members organized the Deseret Silk Association with a mix of male and female leadership. Zina D. H. Young was president of the new silk association with Mary Isabella Horne as second vice president; Alexander C. Pyper was superintendent with Anson Call as first vice president. A committee consisting of Eliza R. Snow, Horne, and Elvira Stevens Barney worked to obtain means to procure machinery and other necessities. Zina Young, who believed the silk association would be critical in helping the Saints becoming self-sustaining, visited settlements throughout the territory to encourage silk raising among Relief Society women and other church leaders.6

During the April 1877 general conference of the church, an official call to all Latter-day Saint women asked them to actively participate in silk production. Attendees unanimously voted that Relief Societies throughout the church would raise silk as part of their mission and thereby work to clothe themselves and their families.7 At the same time, membership in the Deseret Silk Association rapidly spread to local Relief Societies. A branch of the association was organized in Davis County, where Jane Blood lived, at a Relief Society meeting in April 1879.8 Blood’s daughter noted, “Mother had an insatiable craving for knowledge, and real creative ability. . . . She was never satisfied after seeing a new kind of handwork until she had learned how to do it. This desire prompted her to go into the silk industry.”9

May 1880

Tues 11 We Ironed I went to the F R S Meeting10 . . . [p. 9] . . .11

Tue 25 We Ironed I attended F R<elief>. S<ociety>. Meeting Sisters [Sarah] Holmes & Clarke [Mary Stevenson Clark] from Farmington Spoke tous [to us]12 I rode with Sister [Mary Ann] Walker down to Annie [Blood Phillips’s] when I got thair Annie had gone up to our house but Wm [William Blood] brought Her down . . .

Mon 31 William went to town we washed[.] the <baby> was not well Annie went home I bought 2.00 worth of Silkworms Eggs . . .

June 1880

Tues 8 We irond in the morning I attended F R S Meeting in the afternoon13 went to Elizbeth Bennett in the evening she was sick . . .

Thur 10 Made some wax Flowers

Fri 11 ˝ ˝ ˝ went to Choir practice . . .

Satur 12 I was busey home in the morning went to Meeting in the afternoon Sisters holmes and Clark came both Primary ◊sociations [Associations] held Meeting in the Meeting house14 Annie cam[e] [p. 10] . . .

Tue 15 got 50ct Silkworms Egg for I did not think we should have enough . . .

Fri 25 George [Blood] is some better, cleaning out the silkworms . . . [p. 11] . . .

July 1880

Thu 8 Working with the silk wormes . . .

Monday 12 We washed[.] Alfred Manning and wife [Rose Manning] came and Harry [Henry Manning], Maggie [Margaret Manning] and Jane Manning, Annie [Anna] Parker, Frank Gwilliams, thay were going to Rodes valley15 on a visit. William was not well. . . .

Wd 14 I cut out some shirts for William and the boys. I went up to W[illiam] Smith for mulbery leaves.16

Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood

Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood. Jane Blood served as Relief Society teacher, counselor, and treasurer and as Primary president in Kaysville, Utah. Her diary shows how domestic and church activities were interwoven in her daily life. (Courtesy International Society Daughters of Utah Pioneers, Salt Lake City.)

Thur 15 We picked the red currants Mary Ann [Alice Cannon] Lambert came on a visit I went to Haights Creek for aride with John [Blood] he went for oak brush for the wormes to spin on . . .

Thurs 22 Ironed Annie [Parker] & Thomas [Phillips] went home, I went to Smiths for leaves I have been every night for a week but most of the <first> silkworms are spinning . . . [p. 12] . . .

Mon 26 I was working with the silk worms . . .

Saturd 31 picked of some of the cocoons attented Primary Meeting17 . . .

August 1880

Tue 10 we irond Annie came we went to the young Lady’s Meeting Sisters Holmes and both Sisters Clarke18 was to the meeting thay called on me to Speek. . . . [p. 13] . . .

Thur 19 I comenced to teach Mrs [Mary Ann] Lewis and Elizbeth Blaymires [Wadworth] to make wax flowers . . .

Wed 25 We finished the boquets of wax flowers and thay took them home. I charged four dollars each for teaching and sold them a glass Shade each for [blank] . . . [p. 14] . . .

September 1880

Sat 18 I was working at home in the morning went to meeting in the after noon it is the conferance for the primarys Sisters [Aurelia Spencer] Rogers, [Helena] Hess and Lucy Clark came up we had a good meeting thay cam[e] over to supper Annie came . . . [p. 15] . . .

October 1880

Tue 26 I made the boys over halls [overalls] in the morning went to the sisters Meeting in the afternoon . . .

November 1880

Tue 2 They finished thrashing I had a sewing bee William and I went to vote for the delagate to congress19 . . . [p. 17] . . .

December 1880

Sat 4 it is Conferance of this stake the meeting is here Joseph F Smith and John Henry Smith attended . . .

Sun 5 . . . J F [Smith] also spoke to the sisters told them how to live so that thair <children> would grow up to <be> mighty men and wemen told us to teach them the principles of the gosple and to do right from the day thay are born told the men to be good to thair wives and wives to thair husbands and treat all thair famleys good and kind20 . . .

Mon 6 I bought two Sheep for five dollars. it was money I received for teaching wax flowers. . . . [p. 19] . . .

January 1881

Tue 4 Sewing in the morning I went up to Sister [Mary Ann] Hyde in the afternoon her daughter was sick and she came down for me . . . [p. 21]

Thurs 6 I have been bussy sewing all day this is Maggie [Margaret Ann] Manning weding day. it is the first child Margret [Margaret Galbraith Manning] has had married

Fri 7 I have been bussy working and cooking I made a weding cake for Magie . . .

Fri 21 I have been making burial cloths for little Ray [Renaldo] Mowrey he died with the membraim Croop21 he had his throte cut and a silver tube put in for him to breath[e] through he suferd dredfull. . . . [p. 22]

Tue 25 sewing on my dress Sister [Louisa] Egbert came to see about me working up my silk

Wed 26 We washed in the morning I went to Egberts in the afternoon

Thur 27 I have been up to Egberts and begun to real my silk

Fri 28 I have been realing silk Annie and me I went to choir practice

Sat 29 We have dismised the meeting for a wile it is such bad wether for the children to come out I have been realing silk . . .

Monday 31. I have been working in the silk we have realed eight skains today I have got got aletter from Margret to tell me Joseph [Manning] is maried . . .

February 1881

Tue 1 It is Johns [John Blood’s] birthday he is fourteen I have been realing silk all day Joseph Manning wife [Josephine Manning] had a son to day

Wed 2 Working withe the silk I got done realing today.

Thu 3 Twisting silk went to a weding at Egberts, Thomas Wriack [Warrick] was maried

Fri 4 ˝ ˝ [Twisting silk]

Sat 5 ˝ ˝  . . .

Tue 8 Twisting silk . . .

Wed 9 ˝ ˝ ˝

Thur 10 ˝ ˝ ˝

Fri 11 I had to real a little more silk I had eniugh to make it twelve yard of my own raising but I wanted another yd for trimings I bought it from Sister Egbert I paid two dollars for it . . .

Sat 12 I took my silk to farmington to be wove with Sisters Egberts . . . <Joseph Hadfield and wife [Janet Hadfield] weavers.>22 . . . [p. 23] . . .

March 1881

Tue 15 I have been sewing on a quilt for sister Egbert to pay her for teaching me to real silk . . .

Wed 16 I am still sewing at the quilt

Thu 17 John took Sister Egburt and me to Farmington to see about our silk. <Joseph Hadfield & wife did the weaving>23

Fri 18 I finished the quilt and took it home. . . .

Tue 22 I have been fixing up my F R. S. Books24 to day & think of going to the City

to morow. . . .

Tue 29 I began to make my home made silk dress I am very pleased with it because it is my own production

Wed 30 Annie is helping me to make my dress.

thu 31 Sewing Still. . . . [p. 25] . . .

April 1881

Mon 4 I have been Working in the garden planting out cutting of balm of gilierd [Gilead] for shade trees25 . . . [p. 26] . . .

Friday 22. It is the F R S Conferance here to day and the Pri[m]ary in the afternoon we have had very good meetings here Sisters Emeline Wells & Ellen B. Ferguson came up from the City [Salt Lake City].26

Sat 23 We had a splended meeting the Children cam out well.

Sun 24 We went to sunday school there is more <children> coming now than thare has been for some time the parents as a general rule seem to get careless at times about send ing thair children. thay do not know the harm thay are doing by neglicting this duty . . . [p. 27] . . .

May 1881

Tue <Mon> 2 It is my birthday we went up in the canyon. Mrs [Eliza] Hooper cam down to see us. my weight is <about 110 lbs> my height is <5 ft 3/8 in> without my shoes27

Wed <Tue> 3 I have been to Brothers [Edward] Philips Annie [Hannah] Layton baby [Hannah Isabel Layton] is dead and I have been making the cloths and dressing it

Wed 4 I went to the furnial when I came home William was quite sick. my silk wormes are all hatched. . . .

Wed 18 I ironed in the morning & made a cross and started to make the flowers Annie came to help me.

Thu 19 I finished my reath of white flowers, I put on the cross “To the memory of my Mother28 who died febury 20. 1875. born Febury 18. 1813.[”] it looks very nice & I thought it would be good for the children to read and I know if Mother was here she would like it. . . . [p. 28] . . .

Tue 24 We washe and Ironed Maggie Powell [Margaret Annie Powell Cole] helped I went to the woman working meeting in the afternoon. . . . [p. 29] . . .

June 1881

Tue 14 I went to Wm Smiths for leaves & I got some good peach buds I buded some trees, in the afternoon Kate [Henrietta Powell Brown] Annie & I went to meeting Sister Holmes & both Sisters Clarck we had as good a meeting as ever I was at.

Wed 15 we irond & got feed for the wormes. . . .

Fri 17 Kate is took sick with the scarlet feaver I have been coo◊◊◊ing [cooking?] for the men. my wormes started to spin. . . . [p. 30]

Wed 29 we ironed I went with Egberts folks to get osage orange leaves for the silk worms.

Thu 30 we picked of the cocoons Sister [Catherine] Payne, Unice [Mary Eunice] Robins & Annie, came to help us. . . . [p. 31] . . .

September 1881

Wed 7 this morning I went to Brother [Joseph] Egberts to get him to fetch a bit of lumber for a graniary for relief Socity. & the rest of the day working with the peaches. . . .

Sat 10 thair is no Meeting for the Primary to day one of President [Christopher] Layton daughters was burrid I went to the Funial [p. 37] it is Jane Layton she is thirteen years old Bro Alexander Graham died yesterday I have got to make his burial cloths it will take me nearly all night . . . [p. 38] . . .

July 1882

Tue 11 James [Burton] & Eliza Burton came down I went to a29 Meeting the three Sisters Clarks30 were here Sister Hyde resigned & Sarah B Layton was apointed President of the Relief Socity31 . . .

Sat 15 I went to the Primary Meeting this afternoon Jane Manning came on a visit & brought Lawrence [Manning] with her . . .

Tue 18. We washed I went to meeting I was appointed first counciler to Sister Layton32 . . .

Fri 21 I attended three meetings & choir practice Sisters E R S [Eliza R. Snow] Smith & Ziny D Young came up to the F. R S meeting we had very good teachings thay told us of our dutys, told the people never to send thare children to outside schooles for it would take them out of the church33 told the young mothers to try and teach thair young children to love the truth & to keep the commadments of god the Prymary conferance was held in the afternoon sister Eliza asked the children <a> great many good questions & showed them Joseph Smiths watch34 Ziny D Young spoke well to the little folks I went down to Bp [Peter] Bartons after the third meeting I enjoyed my self well Sisters Eliza & Ziny was thare & sister Layton. [p. 54] . . .

Mon 31 We washed in the morning, I went with Ellin [Beazer] Barton in the afternoon35 to see her sister Clara [Beazer Burton] she is very sick36 we washed & anointed her37 . . .

August 1882

Tue 1 <Wed 2> We Ironed I went With S[arah] B Layton & Ellen Barton to wash & anoint Clara Barton [Burton] she is very sick . . . [p. 55] . . .

April 1883

Fri 20 . . . I took some of the Primary children to Farmington to the F R S & the P A conferance we had <a> good time I could not take the baby she is not well & she has very sore eyes . . . [p. 68] . . .

May 1883

Tue 22 We washed & I went to meeting Sisters Nancy Clark & Mary Richards were up we had a good Meeting several spoke in toungs the interpretat[ion]38 was splended it told us to prepare to teach the Indians for the time was near when the sisters as well as the Breathers [Brothers] would have to go among them, told us to be faithfull or it would be a great trial to us I wish I could remember all thay said for it was good39 . . . [p. 69] . . .

June 1883

Sat 9 The children & I went to Meeting I wish my council would attend more regular for it is quite a task to attend alone, but I feel to try & do the best I can for I can see the children need to be taught in the principles of this church, I wish many times I could do more if I had no other dutys I would spend all my time with the young but I have my familey to take care of <I went to practic> . . .

Tue 19. We washed & I went to Meeting I was apointed assistant secretery I have had to take most of the minutes for years . . . [p. 70] . . .

July 1883

Fri 20 We have <had> the harvest men for several days we have been buisey, to day the conferance of the relief society is held here I went in the afternoon I never was at such a meeting,40 Sisters Eliza R Snow & Zina Young came up from the City thay both spoke well thay spok on celestial Marage told us not to speak against it for it is of god & if we speak evil & try to make mischeif in it we will have to answere for it thay both spoke of the good thay thought would arise from the Prymary Meetings told the mothers to send thair children to the meetings Sister E R Snow felt well felt to bless the people here more than she had language to expres she said sisters if you will lift your hearts to god I will bless you in toungues she then blessed us in toungs & Sister Ziny gave the interpretation41 it was very good meeting dismised with singing we thank the oh god for a prophet42 by the prymarys that were present benediction by [blank] In this evening I visited [p. 72] S B Layton Sisters, Snow & Young were thair Sister Snow said asked sister Layton I would like to hear you speak in toungs a short time she did so & sister snow answered <in tongues>43 her sister Z Young gave the interpretation of both <SBL> said the spiret of god is here with us tonight & we are united spoke of the southers mission & of the trials she had & would have to pass through she bore a faithfull testimony to this work, sister Snow said we have not seen many days like today but we will see many more for the spirit of the lord will be poured out on the sisters foryou have a great work to do among the lamanites44 & you must be faithfull & prayrfull or you will get discouraged for it is a great work, & even now many of the lamanite woman are having dreams & visions of things that are to come and even know the words you will speak to them when you meet them but we must use wisdom for our enemies would be ready to shed our blood if thay knew what would come to pass among the Indians thay spok many more things that were good prompting us to be faithfull I never spent a better time sister Snow seemes very feeble to day when she blessed us it seemed to me like a farewell I could not help but feel it but if it is the lords will we must be resigned she has done a good work I went to choir practice . . .

Fri 27 I took the team it is the first time I have driv◊◊ [driven?] [p. 73] my colt she went all right, we went to a meeting of the officers of the relief Society . . . [p. 74] . . .

September 1883

Tue 25 I went to meeting some of the sisters felt full of trouble I told them I thought we should feel very thankfull for the blessings of peace & plenty & try & look on the bright side45 . . .

Sun 30 It is the stake conferance for the young men & wiman here to day we went to

S S & too meetings Brother J F Smith spoke most of the forenoon on parents bringing thair children up right & setting them a good example told us if we had our littl quar[re]ls not to let our children hear us told us if we could not agree on religious points we had better part for our children would not be true to thair religion if thay are brought up in such strife

In the after noon Ziny Young y spoke first on training the young told the mothers to keep the confidence of thair sons & daughter & to keep them in at night told the sisters it is thair privlidge to wash and anoint one another & thair little ones, she told the children in the sunday school that when Brother J F Smith was born his father was in Jail & his mother was taken on a bed & took him to see his father46 told us Joseph Smith led the church 14 years [p. 78] & presedent Young 33 years

Sister [Anstis Elmina Shepherd] Taylor spoke next told the young ladys to learn to do buisness correctly told them to be virtueous & study the laws of life . . .47


  1. [1]Ivy Hooper Blood Hill, ed., Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood Autobiography and Abridged Diary (Logan, UT: J. P. Smith, 1966), 14–19.

  2. [2]Kaysville Ward, North Davis Stake, Kaysville Ward Primary Association Minutes and Records, 1879–1940, CHL, vol. 1, Sept. 18, 1879; “A Statistical and Financial Report of the Relief Society of Kaysville for the Year Ending Mar 31st 1881,” in Kaysville Ward, North Davis Stake, Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, 1878–1937, CHL, 150.

  3. [3]These organizations generally met on weekdays. Blood’s rare Sunday entries show that she also attended Sunday school with her children and the Saturday and Sunday stake conferences held quarterly. She made no regular note of attending the local Sunday worship service, sacrament meeting, which women with children seem to have attended rather erratically during this period. Latter-day Saints in general did not attend sacrament meetings weekly. “‘Going to meeting’ clearly was not a popular nineteenth century pastime. Part of the problem lay with economics. Frontier scarcity restricted leisure time and therefore church attendance, especially during crisis years like the period after the move south. Moreover, humdrum meetings contributed to the lack of attendance. During the two- and sometimes three-hour worship services, impromptu speakers often preached interminably, often without the virtue of edifying. . . . Nineteenth-century Mormons simply refused to regard meeting attendance as a serious obligation. While the linking of ‘going to a meeting’ with religiosity surfaced as early as the 1850s, the idea obviously failed to take hold. Instead of gathering at the chapel, the pioneers declared the faith by adopting a life-style that set them apart from the world and put them to work ‘building the kingdom.’” (Ronald W. Walker, “‘Going to Meeting’ in Salt Lake City’s Thirteenth Ward, 1849–1881: A Microanalysis,” in New Views of Mormon History: A Collection of Essays in Honor of Leonard J. Arrington, ed. Davis Bitton and Maureen Ursenbach Beecher [Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1987], 154–155.)

  4. [4]See, for example, “Discourse,” Deseret News, Jan. 27, 1858, 372–373; and Document 3.4.

  5. [5]“Culture of Silk,” Deseret News [weekly], Mar. 25, 1868, 52; “Society for Cultivating Silk,” Deseret News [weekly], Nov. 4, 1868, 312.

  6. [6]Deseret Silk Association, Minutes, June 1875–Oct. 1878, CHL, June 14 and 21, 1875, and Jan. 3, 1876; “Home Affairs,” Woman’s Exponent, June 15, 1875, 4:13; Mary Ann Hardy, “Minutes of a Meeting,” Woman’s Exponent, July 15, 1875, 4:27.

  7. [7]“General Conference at St. George,” Woman’s Exponent, Apr. 15, 1877, 5:172.

  8. [8]“Home Affairs,” Woman’s Exponent, May 1, 1879, 7:234. The following year, the Utah Silk Association was organized. The Deseret Silk Association was an undertaking of the church, while the Utah Silk Association was organized as a for-profit business according to the laws of Utah. (R. Simpson, “Utah Silk Association,” Woman’s Exponent, Jan. 15, 1880, 8:126.)

  9. [9]Hill, Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood Autobiography and Abridged Diary, 27.

  10. [10]At this meeting, Blood donated twenty-five cents and a spool of cotton worth seven cents. (Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, May 11, 1880.)

  11. [11]text: The ellipsis points in these excerpts have been supplied by the editors of this volume to indicate omissions from the original journal.

  12. [12]The Kaysville Ward Relief Society minutes date this meeting to May 24. Holmes and Clark were local Relief Society leaders. Clark spoke on the importance of Relief Society meetings and of unity with the Saints. She also “spoke of an old Lamanitish Woman who said she remembered her Grandfather saying, a people would come from the west with a history of their Fathers. Spoke of the purity of some of the Indian Tribes.” Holmes spoke about the importance of acquiring knowledge, raising children to understand the gospel, cultivating silk, and storing grain, commenting, “It is as much a duty to attend to temporal as it is to pray.” (Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, May 24, 1880.)

  13. [13]At this meeting Blood donated one package of tea worth twenty-five cents. (Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, June 8, 1880.)

  14. [14]For an account of this meeting, see Kaysville Ward Primary Association Minutes and Records, vol. 1, June 12, 1880.

  15. [15]Rhodes (or Rhoades) Valley was the original name of what is today Kamas, Summit County, Utah. (David Hampshire et al., A History of Summit County, Utah Centennial County History Series [Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1998], 73–74.)

  16. [16]Silk worms were fed on leaves from mulberry trees, which were imported to Utah for the silk industry. (See Chris Rigby Arrington, “The Finest of Fabrics: Mormon Women and the Silk Industry in Early Utah,” Utah Historical Quarterly 46, no. 4 [Fall 1978]: 376‒396.)

  17. [17]Blood spoke at this meeting. (Kaysville Ward Primary Association Minutes and Records, vol. 1, July 31, 1880.)

  18. [18]Likely Lucy Augusta Rice Clark and Nancy Areta Porter Stevenson Clark, both of whom were leaders in the local Young Ladies’ Mutual Improvement Association in this period.

  19. [19]George Q. Cannon won this election for territorial delegate to Congress. (“Territorial Returns,” “Allen G. Campbell’s Protest,” and “The Delegate’s Certificate,” Deseret News [weekly], Dec. 22, 1880, 737, 741, 744.)

  20. [20]Two sessions of the stake conference were held this day. Joseph F. Smith wrote in his journal of the morning session, “I then spoke about 45 minutes and enjoyed much of the good spirit.” He also spoke “about 45 min.” in the afternoon session. (Joseph F. Smith, Journal, in Joseph F. Smith, Papers, 1854–1918, CHL, Dec. 5, 1880.)

  21. [21]Mowrey died from diphtheria. (Salt Lake City, Salt Lake Co., UT, Office of Vital Statistics, Death Records of Salt Lake City, Utah, 1848–Sept. 1950, p. 249, microfilm 26,553, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.)

  22. [22]text: This sentence was written in a different hand, probably at a later time.

  23. [23]text: This sentence was written in a different hand, probably at a later time.

  24. [24]At this time Blood was serving as treasurer of the Kaysville Ward Relief Society. (“A Statistical and Financial Report,” in Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, p. 150.)

  25. [25]Plants commonly known as “Balm of Gilead” take the name from a balsam tree that produced resin or sap considered to have antiseptic and healing properties. Here the term likely refers to a type of balsam poplar (Populous candicans) that was a fast-growing shade tree often planted by early Utah settlers. (See Jeremiah 8:22; “Balm,” in The Oxford English Dictionary, ed. James A. H. Murray et al., 12 vols., 1933, reprint [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970], 1:642; and Emily Anne Brooksby Wheeler, “The Solitary Place Shall Be Glad for Them: Understanding and Treating Mormon Pioneer Gardens as Cultural Landscapes” [master’s thesis, Utah State University, 2011], 63, 111.)

  26. [26]The minutes date this third annual conference of the Davis Stake Relief Society to April 23, 1881. Wells stated that she “was pleased to see so many bretheren present. It shows their interest. . . . The Elders on missions are proud to have the Exponent to exhibit, it proves that we can work, think & write for ourselves.” In the afternoon meeting of the Relief Society, Wells spoke on “industry, home duties, the influence of good books on the mind.” (Davis Stake, Davis Stake Relief Society Minutes and Records, 1878–1915, CHL, Apr. 23, 1881.)

  27. [27]text: The inserted information reflecting her height and weight was written in a different hand.

  28. [28]Ann Wilkie Galbraith Hooper (February 18, 1813–February 20, 1875), born at Glasgow, Scotland; died at Hooper, Weber County, Utah. (Hill, Jane Wilkie Hooper Blood Autobiography and Abridged Diary, 13, 20; Pioneer Women of Faith and Fortitude, 4 vols. [Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1998], 2:1410–1411.)

  29. [29]text: A word—possibly “three”—was written and struck through at this point.

  30. [30]Probably Lucy Augusta Rice Clark, Nancy Areta Porter Stevenson Clark, and Mary Stevenson Clark.

  31. [31]At this meeting of the Kaysville Ward Relief Society, Bishop Peter Barton read Mary Ann Cowles Hyde’s letter of resignation. He “said he did not expect to reorganize today, but thought he may as well put a nomination; he put the name of Sarah B. Layton, it was accepted.” Blood kept the minutes of this meeting as secretary pro tem. (Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, July 11, 1882.)

  32. [32]The minutes date this meeting to July 17, 1882. After Blood was appointed as first counselor in the ward Relief Society presidency, she resigned her position as treasurer. Blood kept the minutes of this meeting as secretary. (Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, July 17, 1882.)

  33. [33]A number of tuition-free parochial schools, staffed by trained teachers from the eastern United States, had been established in Utah. The Deseret News also expressed a lack of trust in parochial schools, opining that their “main object” was to “train up youth in opposition to the ‘Mormon’ religion.” (“Begging for Schools,” Deseret News [weekly], Apr. 26, 1876, 198.)

  34. [34]During this period Snow frequently exhibited a gold watch that Joseph Smith had given her, possibly at the organizational meeting of the Nauvoo Relief Society. One of the many accounts of interacting with this watch comes from a recollection of Mary Belnap Lowe, who handled the watch as a child: “One particular instance was in the present Ogden Tabernacle. [Snow] kept it fastened on a long cold [gold] chain about her neck, with the watch in a side pocket. We children were attending a primary convention . . . and Sister Snow told the children to march single file in front of the pulpit where she stood and handle it, so that they would remember that it was Joseph Smith’s own watch.” (Jennifer Reeder, “Eliza R. Snow and the Prophet’s Gold Watch: Time Keeper as Relic,” Journal of Mormon History 31, no. 1 [Spring 2005]: 119–141; Mary B. Lowe, Statement, May 12, 1941, typescript, CHL.)

  35. [35]Barton served as a counselor to Blood in the Kaysville Ward Primary. (Kaysville Ward Primary Association Minutes and Records, vol. 1, Sept. 18, 1879.)

  36. [36]Burton died on August 19, 1882. (“Burton, Clara,” Utah Department of Heritage and Arts, Cemeteries and Burials Database, accessed Apr. 6, 2015,

  37. [37]See Document 4.19.

  38. [38]text: The last part of this word appears to run off the edge of the page.

  39. [39]The meeting of the Kaysville Ward Relief Society also included speeches, bearing of testimonies, and singing of hymns. Blood kept the minutes. (Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, May 22, 1883.)

  40. [40]The minutes of the Davis Stake Relief Society record the date of this stake Relief Society conference as July 27, 1883. Both Snow and Young spoke in the morning and afternoon sessions of the conference. In the morning, Snow “made interesting remarks concerning the Holy Ghost said we should have it for our constant companion the nearer we draw to God the nearer he condesends to us We should always cultivate and encourage the spirit of God. And if at any time we desire to speak of the goodness of God we should not let any evil influence bind us to our seats Prayed God to bless us all.” In the afternoon session, Young addressed the “Primary children that were present related several interesting circumstances where the sick were healed by the power of faith.” Snow encouraged the women to “take advantage of the limited privelege we enjoy Politically” and encouraged them to support the Woman’s Exponent, as it was their only way to “speak through to the world.” She “bore a faithful testimony to Plural Marriage gave some good instruction in regard to it related her experience.” (Davis Stake Relief Society Minutes and Records, July 27, 1883.)

  41. [41]The minutes record that at the end of the conference, “Sister Snow then blessed us all in tongues the interpretation was given by sister Zina Young.” (Davis Stake Relief Society Minutes and Records, July 27, 1883.)

  42. [42]Hymn 152, Sacred Hymns and Spiritual Songs. For the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 12th ed. (Liverpool: George Q. Cannon; London: L. D. Saints’ Book Depot), 166.

  43. [43]Eliza R. Snow often participated in use of the gift of tongues. In January 1878 she stated, “In the early days of the Church, the young took delight in the work, and it was no uncommon thing for the children to speak in tongues, and have the blessings of the Gospel poured upon them.” After President John Taylor set apart Snow and her counselors in the general Relief Society presidency, “Sister [Elizabeth Ann] Whitney than sang one of her sweet songs of Zion in the language which was spoken and sung (the Prophet Joseph Smith said) by our first parents in the Garden of Eden. Sister Snow explained that Joseph Smith told Mother Whitney ‘If she would use the gift with wisdom it should remain with her as long as she lived.’ Sister Zina then gave the interpretation.” (“R.S. Reports,” Woman’s Exponent, Feb. 15, 1878, 6:138; “R. S. Reports,” Woman’s Exponent, Sept. 1, 1880, 9:[53]‒54; see also Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, ed., The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, Life Writings of Frontier Women 5 [Logan: Utah State University Press, 2000], 151, 178‒179, 183‒185.)

  44. [44]The Book of Mormon spoke of the gospel being preached to the Lamanites: “And the gospel of Jesus Christ shall be declared among them; wherefore, they shall be restored unto the knowledge of their fathers, and also to the knowledge of Jesus Christ.” Church members believed that American Indians were descendants of the Lamanites. Many American Indians in Utah Territory had been baptized into the church, and a few began to hold leadership positions in the Relief Society. The Relief Society in Thistle Valley was reorganized in the summer of 1880, and “a native woman . . . was elected second counselor.” In May 1883 an Indian woman named Cohn was selected as a counselor in a Relief Society in Box Elder County. (2 Nephi 30:5; “Visit to Sanpete—Notes by the Way,” Woman’s Exponent, Aug. 15, 1880, 9:44–45; “An Interesting Trip,” Woman’s Exponent, July 1, 1883, 12:20–21; see also Document 4.7.)

  45. [45]The Kaysville Ward Relief Society minutes record her comments: “Sister J. W. Blood said we should not look on the dark side I hope we will try and over come these feelings. I think we should feel thankful for the Blessings we enjoy.” (Kaysville Ward Relief Society Minutes and Records, vol. 1, Sept. 25, 1883.)

  46. [46]Joseph F. Smith was born November 13, 1838, shortly after his father and uncle, Hyrum and Joseph Smith, were arrested in Far West, Missouri. On December 1 they were imprisoned in Liberty, Missouri, with other Mormon leaders. (Joseph Fielding Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, Sixth President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1938], 117, 123–124.)

  47. [47]The September 30, 1883, entry continues for two paragraphs after this point.